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Final Coverage. Topic 4: INFORMATION RESOURCES and INFORMATION SYSTEMS By Dr. Faustino Reyes. Information Resources Include 1. Specialists Systems analysts, programmers, database administrators, network specialists, operations personnel, and others 2. Hardware

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Final coverage

Final Coverage

Topic 4: INFORMATION RESOURCES and

INFORMATION SYSTEMS

By

Dr. Faustino Reyes


Final coverage

Information Resources Include

1. Specialists

Systems analysts, programmers, database administrators, network specialists, operations personnel, and others

2. Hardware

3. Software

4. Users

5. Data

6. Information


Final coverage

Information Specialists1. Most located in the information services unit2. There is a trend to locate specialists throughout the firm3. Actual organization chart depends on the needs of the firm


Final coverage

CIO

Manager

of systems

development

Manager

of systems

maintenance

Manager

of computer

operations

Manager

of systems

administration

Network

manager

Operations

personnel

Database

administrators

Network

specialists

Systems

analyst

Systems

analyst

Programmers

Programmers

18-42

A Functional Organization Structure for Information Services


Final coverage

Information Resources1. Most are located in information services2. Most that are centrally located are CIO’s responsibility3. Those located in functional areas are the responsibility of the area manager


Final coverage

Model of an IRIS(Information Resources Intelligence Subsytem)Input subsystems-AIS-Information resources research-Information resources intelligenceOutput subsystems-Hardware-Software-Human resources-Data and Information-Integrated resource


Final coverage

Hardware

subsystem

D

A

T

A

B

A

S

E

Accounting

information

system

Software

subsystem

Human resources

subsystem

Information

resources

research

subsystem

Users

Data and

information

subsystem

Information

resources

intelligence

subsystem

Integrated

resource

subsystem

18-43


Final coverage

Information Resources Research Subsystem:-Describes functions involved in special research projects within the firm-Performed by systems analysts interacting with users


Final coverage

Intelligence SubsystemDescribes functions involved in gathering information from elements in the firm’s environment-Government-Suppliers-Labor unions-Global community-Customers-Competitors


Final coverage

CIO Responsibilities- Can be top-level executive who participates on executive and MIS steering committee- Contributes to strategic planning for firm and IS functions- Primary source of leadership for:- Achieving and maintaining information quality- Keeping information resources secure- Planning for contingencies- Keeping information costs under control


Achieving quality products and services

IS Takes Six Basic Steps in

Achieving Quality Management

1

Identify IS customers

Define customer quality needs

2

3

Establish quality metrics

4

Define quality strategy

Implement IS quality programs

5

6

Monitor IS quality performance

Achieving Quality Products and Services


Final coverage

1) Identify IS customers-MIS steering committee-Use of a formal system works best2) Define customer quality needs-Product quality needs-Service quality needs3) Establish quality metrics-Information product quality-Information service quality


Final coverage

4) Define the IS quality strategy-Recruiting and training-User-oriented systems development -Market analysis-Product acceptance analysis-Task analysis-Prototype tests-Operational Systems tests5) Implement IS quality programs- Implementation varies with firm6) Monitor IS quality-Performance of IS specialists and the unit


Security objectives 1 confidentiality 2 availability 3 integrity

Security Objectives1. Confidentiality2. Availability3. Integrity


Final coverage

Unauthorized Acts Threaten System Security Objectives

Unauthorized

use

Information

Unauthorized

disclosure

and theft

Confidentiality

Availability

Integrity

Security

Unauthorized

modification

Unauthorized

destruction and

denial of service


Final coverage

Access Control

1. Identification

  • What you know (password) or

  • Where you are (terminal location)

    2. Authentication

  • What you have (badge)

    3. Authorization

  • Level of use


Final coverage

Contingency Planning

  • Emergency plan

  • Backup plan

  • Redundancy

  • Diversity

  • Mobility

  • Reciprocal agreement

  • Hot site

  • Cold site

  • Empty shell


Final coverage

Vital Records Plan

  • Electronic vaulting

    -Day end backup of files electronically

  • Remote journaling

    -Transmission of transaction data as the transactions occur

    -Used to update remote database in batch form later

  • Database shadowing

    -Involves updating of duplicate database at remote site as transaction occur


Final coverage

Cost-Reduction Strategies

  • Consolidation

  • Reduces number of separate locations for information resources

  • Easiest to achieve in terms of information resources

  • More difficult by end-user computing needs

  • Downsizing

  • Migrating to smaller platforms

  • Advantage of cost reduction

  • Advantage of increased productivity with PCs located in user areas

  • Risk of lost security

  • Outsourcing

  • Data entry and simple processing (editing, formatting)

  • Contract programming

  • Facilities management (FM)

  • Systems integration (SI)

  • Support for maintenance, service, or disaster recovery


Final coverage

Objectives of Outsourcing

  • Manage costs better

  • Reduce

  • Contain

  • Predict

  • Obtain relief from systems maintenance so as to concentrate on new system development

  • Acquire needed expertise


Final coverage

Proactive CIO Strategy

1) CIO must emphasize quality management of the IS resource

2) Achieve strong user ties

3) Strengthen executive ties

4) Assemble an IS management team

5) Assemble staff competent in leading-edge technologies and methodologies

6) Build an IRIS


Final coverage

The Future of the CIO

  • Business computing is moving from centralized to decentralized computing in terms of:

  • Equipment

  • Development

  • Decision making

  • CIO Roles

  • Big brother

  • Helping hand

  • Watchdog

  • Networker


Final coverage

TOPIC 5

STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR INFORMATION RESOURCES


Increasing complexity of im

Increasing Complexity of IM

  • For the first 10 years or so of the computer era, all the information resources were located in the firms information unit.

  • But as computer develops, more and more of the hardware are located outside of information services.

  • As firms acquire more information resources and as those resources are disperser throughout the organization, the task of information resource mgt. becomes complex


Final coverage

Strategic Planning

  • Also called Long-range Planning

  • Identifies objectives that are intended to give the firm the most favorable position in its environment and specifies the strategies for achieving those objectives

  • Upper management level is also called the strategic planning level


Functional areas of strategic planning sp

Functional Areas of Strategic Planning (SP)


Strategic planning for information resources spir

Strategic Planning for Information Resources (SPIR)

  • The activity of identifying the information resources that the firm will need in the future, acquiring those resources, and managing them.

  • SPIR is a responsibility of all the manager

  • CIO is often used for the top information services manager

  • Strategic planning was less understood before and was given little attention because it was viewed as technical concern rather than a managerial one.


Final coverage

SPIR contd.

  • But in recent years, the attitude about SPIR has been undergoing dramatic changes.

  • Increasingly, information is accepted as a resource that must be managed like any other resources and SPIR has emerged as a critical management concern


Overview of spir

Overview of SPIR

  • Late 1960s-Mid 1970s: Data Processing Planning

    - An internal mgt tool of DP department

    - ensure the efficient interfacing of diverse technical systems

    - serves to enhance the quality of service provided by DP dept.

  • Late 1970s: Strategic planning for IT

    - I.T. was realized to increase productivity

    - “information society” an American economy was predominantly and commonly accepted


Overview of spir cont

Overview of SPIR cont.

  • Late 1970s: Strategic planning for IT

    -Logical development in the concept of planning

    -IT planning must not only serve the management needs of the DP department, but the organization as a whole

    -IT plans is related to business plans, not only in supporting capacity, but also as equal partner, helping to define and even create business needs and opportunity

    -IT planning came to be perceived as “strategic” to the interest of the organization


Overview of spir cont1

Overview of SPIR cont.

  • 1980s: Integrated Planning for an Integrated Information Resources Environment

    - The latest stage in the concept of information resource planning is primarily a function of 3 key trends


Strategic planning methodologies

Strategic Planning Methodologies

  • Used to ensure that all important activities and products are accomplished and produced.

  • Helps a company translate its strategic business goals into IS development plans to achieve these goals

  • Critical Success Factors (CSF)

  • IBM’s Business System Planning (BSP)

  • Strategy Set Transformation

  • Expanded Systems Life Cycle


  • Strategic planning methodologies cont

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Critical Success Factors

      • A small number of key factors that executives consider critical to the success of the enterprise

      • CSF analysis provides a very powerful method for concentrating on key information requirements of an organization, a business unit, or of a manager.

      • Also, CSF analysis is easy to perform and can be carried out with few resources

      • Used for interpreting more clearly the objectives, tactics, and operational activities and strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s existing systems.


    Strategic planning methodologies cont1

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Critical Success Factors


    Strategic planning methodologies cont2

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Business System Planning (BSP) by IBM

      • assists an organization in developing information systems plans

      • should be planned from the top down and implemented piece-by-piece from the bottom up.


    Strategic planning methodologies cont3

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Business System Planning (BSP) by IBM

      • Top-down planning - planning team of top executives lay out the strategic mission and objectives of the organizations.

      • Bottom-up implementation – application development activities that are performed by teams of end users and IS professionals.


    Strategic planning methodologies cont4

    Business Mission

    And Objectives

    IT Architecture

    Hardware/Software/Data/Networks

    Business Mission

    And Objectives

    Business Mission

    And Objectives

    Business

    Processes

    Business/IT

    Capabilities

    Needed

    Business

    Application

    Business/IT

    Capabilities

    Provided

    Business

    Processes

    Business

    Processes

    Business

    Processes

    Business

    Processes

    Top-Down Planning

    Bottom-Up Planning

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Top-down planning


    Strategic planning methodologies cont5

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Strategy Set Transformation

      • An approach where an information services plan was devised to support the firm’s objective.

      • This approach seeks to transform the business strategy set to corresponding IT strategy set

      • Strategy set: (mission, vision, goals, objectives)

        • the information services plan used in strategy transformation, it consists of objectives, constraints, and strategies.

      • Basic Flow:

      • Business areas do not always have the resource to ensure the accomplishment of the firm’s strategic objectives.


    Strategic planning methodologies cont6

    Organizational

    Strategy Set

    MIS

    Strategy Set

    Mission

    Objectives

    Strategy

    Other strategic

    Organizational

    attributes

    System Objective

    System Constraints

    System Design

    Strategies

    MIS

    Strategic planning

    process

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Strategy Set Transformation


    Strategic planning methodologies cont7

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Expanded SDLC

      • Postulated that the development of all complex system naturally evolved through a sequential series of phase that where most appropriately managed in different ways, and which demanded different mixes of resources to complete effectively and efficiently.


    Strategic planning methodologies cont8

    Strategic IS Planning

    System Integration

    Planning

    System Evaluation

    Divestment

    System Definition

    Physical Design

    System Implemen-tation

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Expanded SDLC


    Strategic planning methodologies cont9

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • SPIR Approach

      • When a firm embraces SPIR, the strategic plans for information services and the firm are concurrent


    Strategic planning methodologies cont10

    Organizational

    Strategy Set

    MIS

    Strategy Set

    Influence on

    Information resources

    Business

    strategy

    Information

    resources

    And

    IS strategy

    Influence on

    business strategy

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • SPIR Approach


    Strategic planning methodologies cont11

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Content of SPIR

      • Each firm will develop strategic plan for information resources that meets its own particular needs.

      • But essentially, the plan contains:

        • The objectives to be achieved

        • Information resources necessary to achieve its objective.


    Strategic planning methodologies cont12

    SPIR

    AIS

    objectives

    MIS

    objectives

    DSS

    objectives

    Virtual office

    objectives

    Knowledge

    Based system

    objectives

    Required

    Information

    resources

    Required

    Information

    resources

    Required

    Information

    resources

    Required

    Information

    resources

    Required

    Information

    resources

    Human

    resources

    Human

    resources

    Human

    resources

    Human

    resources

    Human

    resources

    Hardware

    Hardware

    Hardware

    Hardware

    Hardware

    Software

    Software

    Software

    Software

    Software

    Info and

    date

    Info and

    date

    Info and

    date

    Info and

    date

    Info and

    date

    Strategic Planning Methodologies cont.

    • Content of SPIR


    Thank you

    Thank you!


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