Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 45

Offal/Specialty Meats/Organ Meats PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Offal/Specialty Meats/Organ Meats. The word offal comes from the Old English “off” and “fall” referring to the pieces that fall from the animal carcass during butchering Other names: offal cuts, specialty meats, organ meats, variety meats, bad meats, and cheap meats. Liver.

Download Presentation

Offal/Specialty Meats/Organ Meats

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Offal specialty meats organ meats l.jpg

Offal/Specialty Meats/Organ Meats

  • The word offal comes from the Old English “off” and “fall” referring to the pieces that fall from the animal carcass during butchering

  • Other names: offal cuts, specialty meats, organ meats, variety meats, bad meats, and cheap meats

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Liver l.jpg

Liver

  • If liver is going to be cooked by any dry method of cooking, great care must be taken to ensure that it is not overcooked

  • If overcooked, it will harden, toughen, and change flavor considerably

  • The thinner the cut, the faster it will need to be cooked

  • Inaccuracy in removal of the silver skin can cause curling of the liver during cooking resulting in poor presentation and toughness

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Beef liver l.jpg

Beef Liver

  • Quality Factors

    • Should have a bright color with a moist but not slimy surface and fresh smell

    • Is darker and has a stronger taste than all other livers

    • Is generally toughest of all livers

    • Can weight 8 to 12 pounds

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Calf s liver l.jpg

Calf’s Liver

  • Should be deep rose to reddish brown in color

  • Should not have any dark red or purple tinges

  • Should not have any blood spots or bruising

  • Should weight on average 7 pounds

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Lamb liver l.jpg

Lamb Liver

  • Has sharp and distinctive odor

  • Very light reddish brown in color

  • Color should be lively and have a bright bloom; should not show any sign of dullness

  • Resembles calf’s liver, and is sometimes mistakenly sold as calf’s liver

  • Generally very tender

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Lamb liver7 l.jpg

Lamb Liver

  • Weighs on average about 2 pounds

  • Dries very quickly if overcooked

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Pork liver l.jpg

Pork Liver

  • Has a strong odor and flavor

  • Color should be lively and have a light reddish brown tinge

  • Weighs on average 3 pounds

  • Is primarily used in the production of pâtes and sausages, although it can be sautéed and fried

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Cleaning liver l.jpg

Cleaning Liver

  • Wash well and pat dry

  • Remove any tough membranes, tubes, and sinews

  • Take great care not to damage the structure during removal of veins

  • Skin the liver by removing tough silver skin that surrounds it

  • Slice as desired

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Chicken and duck liver l.jpg

Chicken and Duck Liver

  • Quality Points

    • Should be firm and well shaped

    • Should not have any evidence of the gallbladder remaining—easily recognized by green staining

    • Should be a rich dark reddish brown with a bright bloom

    • Should be intact, not mashed or damaged in any way

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras l.jpg

Foie Gras

  • Romans (1st century BC) realized that goose liver was greatly improved when the geese were fed fresh figs

  • Ashkenazi Jews of central Europe are credited with disseminating the method of cultivation of foie gras

  • Escoffier created step-by-step instructions on preparing the liver for foie gras as we know it today

  • Literal translation from the French is “fat liver”

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras12 l.jpg

Foie Gras

  • Quality Points

    • Color should be light yellow to amber

    • The lighter the liver, the less fat is contained in the liver

    • Should be firm and resilient to touch

    • Should give slightly under thumb pressure, and the thumb mark should remain visible

    • The higher the grade, the fewer blemishes should be present

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras13 l.jpg

Foie Gras

  • Quality Points

    • Grade A livers must weigh at least 1½ pounds

    • Grade B livers should weigh between ¾ and 1½ pounds

    • Grade C livers were less than 1 pound

    • The size of the liver will determine how much vein is contained within

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras14 l.jpg

Foie Gras

  • Quality Points

    • Finest livers should be relatively free of any bruises or blemishes

    • Surface blood spots, or small red pin dots, indicate a breakdown of capillaries or an excessive number of veins that will affect the flavor and texture of the finished dish

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras15 l.jpg

Foie Gras

  • Quality Points

    • Generally sold in individual vacuum-sealed packages and should remain in packages until ready for use

    • Will keep for 2 weeks in vacuum seal in the refrigerator

    • Best when used within 1 week of purchase

    • When removed from vacuum package, use immediately, or wrap tightly in plastic and use within 48 hours

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras16 l.jpg

Foie Gras

  • Quality Points

    • Freezing and defrosting destroy cell walls within the foie gras, allowing moisture to evaporate

    • Residual blood left in veins can be removed by soaking in milk for 2 hours (may not be necessary because of modern processing)

    • Goose liver is slightly larger than duck liver

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras preparation l.jpg

Foie Gras Preparation

  • Hot Preparation

    • Using a slightly chilled liver, separate the lobes by gently inserting your hands between the lobes, and with one lobe in each hand, pull them apart

    • Use a sharp knife to cut the connective membranes and nerves between the lobes

    • Trim away any visible membranes, veins, and green bile

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras preparation18 l.jpg

Foie Gras Preparation

  • Hot Preparation

    • Cut lobes into medallions of differing sizes depending on the method of cooking

    • Always use a sharp knife dipped in hot water and slice the liver on a diagonal

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras preparation19 l.jpg

Foie Gras Preparation

  • Cold Preparation

    • Remove the Vein:

      • Bring the liver to room temperature by removing the foie gras from the vacuumed package, rinsing well, and immersing it in a water bath of 95ºF (35ºC).

      • After soaking for one hour, the liver will be pliable enough to clean

      • Separate the two lobes and, with the larger lobe lying upside down, find the area where the connecting membranes and veins have been cut

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras preparation20 l.jpg

Foie Gras Preparation

  • Cold Preparation

    • Remove the Vein:

      • Gently tug the membrane to reveal the location of the central vein of the lobe; as you pull, use your other hand to gently peel back the flesh of the liver, tracing the location of the vein

      • Clean the foie gras without breaking it into pieces; the central vein reaches roughly two thirds down the middle of the large lobe before it forks into two separate directions, forming an upside-down “Y”

      • Remove it gently, following it at all times; remove all membranes at the same time as the veins

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Foie gras preparation21 l.jpg

Foie Gras Preparation

  • Cold Preparation

    • Remove the Vein:

      • You should have a somewhat flattened but intact lobe

      • Do the same for the other lobe

      • Discard the membranes and veins; using the cleaned lobes, continue with the recipe

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Sweetbreads l.jpg

Sweetbreads

  • Most delicately flavored of the offal meats

  • Most sought after for their subtle flavor and wonderful texture

  • They are the small thymus glands from the neck and heart of young steers, calves, and lamb

  • The round lobe is found near the heart

  • The longer elongated lobe is from the throat in the neck of the animal

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Sweetbreads23 l.jpg

Sweetbreads

  • Quality Factors

    • Should be light, bright, and rosy in color

    • The larger size is more desirable

    • Should not have any blood spots or bruising visible

    • Outer membrane is removed either before or after cooking

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Cooking sweetbreads l.jpg

Cooking Sweetbreads

  • Soak in cold water for about 6 to 8 hours, changing the water often

  • Blanch in simmering water with a little lemon juice or vinegar added for about 2 minutes to help firm their texture and prepare them for trimming

  • Chill immediately and pat dry

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Cooking sweetbreads25 l.jpg

Cooking Sweetbreads

  • Carefully trim off all tubes, sinews, and any fat, pressing very lightly between 2 boards to even their size

  • The sweetbreads can now be larded or studded as desired

  • They are braised brown or white, sautéed, or fried

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Tongue l.jpg

Tongue

  • Quality Points

    • There should be no throat bones or cartilage attached

    • Wash well in cold water to remove any blood

  • Cooking

    • Tongues should be soaked in acidulated water for an hour or in plain water overnight if the tongues are to be salted

    • Tongue has a thick outer layer of skin and requires a long, slow, moist cooking method to make it tender enough to eat

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Tongue27 l.jpg

Tongue

  • Cooking

    • Cook by poaching, and when it is fully cooked, quickly plunge into cold water; the skin is then split and peeled off like a glove

    • Before serving, cut away any roots, small bones, or gristle that might still be present at the neck end

    • Tongues can be pickled and pressed into shapes before cutting, but this must be done after skinning and before they are completely cooled

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Heart l.jpg

Heart

  • Quality Points

    • Hearts should have a fresh smell and red color not brown or gray

    • Store loosely wrapped in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days

  • Cooking

    • All hearts should be thoroughly washed before cooking, and the membrane inside that divides the two heart chambers should be removed, particularly if the heart is to be stuffed

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Heart29 l.jpg

Heart

  • Cooking

    • Open the heart without separating halves

    • Trim off excess fat and tubes

    • Remove clots of blood and sprinkle with olive oil and lemon juice

    • Marinate for 1 to 2 hours and season with salt and pepper

    • Stuff with pork forcemeat or savory stuffing

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Heart30 l.jpg

Heart

  • Cooking

    • Wrap in larding bacon (cut paper-thin) or in pig’s caul

    • Tie well with string and cook gently by roasting or braising

    • Alternately, the heart may be sewn closed for cooking

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Kidneys l.jpg

Kidneys

  • Rules for purchase:

    • Should not appear limp or have a strong smell

    • Are highly perishable and should be prepared promptly after they are purchased

    • Should have a bright appearance and should not appear shriveled in any way

    • Should be firm, pink, or pale red rather than purple, and should not have a uric acid smell

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Lamb kidneys l.jpg

Lamb Kidneys

  • Preparation for cooking:

    • Slit on bulging side and open without separating the two halves

    • Remove the skin, trim tubes, skewer to keep kidney open

    • They can be divided into 2 halves lengthwise; skin and trim

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Pluck l.jpg

Pluck

  • Rules for preparation:

    • The lungs should be beaten vigorously to expel air, and the spleen should be skinned

    • They should be soaked in cold water with salt for 24 hours to remove the blood

    • Blanch spleen and lungs in salt water for 10 minutes; Slice it thinly and fry in clarified butter

    • Alternately, they should be lightly poached for 1½ hours until tender and used for stuffing and sausage

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Brains l.jpg

Brains

  • Quality Points

    • Choose brains that are clean, light pink color, and free of blood clots and stains

    • Brains should be firm, plump, and pinkish white

    • Chill well and use the same day as purchased

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Brains35 l.jpg

Brains

  • Preparation for Cooking

    • Before precooking, soak the brains in cold water and remove the outer membrane

    • Brains should be soaked in cold water until all the blood is leached away; the arteries and fibers should then be removed

    • Precooking is, in fact, a prerequisite to most methods of preparation and enhances the keeping quality of the brains

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Brains36 l.jpg

Brains

  • Preparation for Cooking

    • Simmer them for about 20 minutes in salted water, adding 1 or 2 tablespoons of lemon juice or vinegar, and other seasonings if you desire

    • Another method is to simmer them in milk; this step will firm their mushy consistency for use in other recipes

    • The brains are rested and cooled before the next method of cooking takes place

    • They may be sautéed or cut in small pieces and deep fried in batter or other coatings, fried, creamed, or scrambled with eggs

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Blood l.jpg

Blood

  • Considerations for Cooking

    • Fresh blood straight from the animal is at great risk for spoiling unless dealt with immediately

    • A little lemon juice or vinegar should be added to stop the blood from clotting during refrigeration; 1 tablespoon (15 mL) of lemon juice per 2 quarts (1.9 L) of blood is the recommended ratio

    • Store the fresh blood for no more than 2 days

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Slide38 l.jpg

Head

  • Quality Points

    • Check the neck for obvious signs of bruising and damaged flesh

    • Ensure that the windpipes have been removed

    • Clean the ears, nose, and mouth areas of anything that looks unclean

    • Wash the whole head thoroughly

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Slide39 l.jpg

Head

  • Preparation for Cooking

    • Make an incision down the center of the head from the top of the forehead to the nose of the animal

    • Run your knife along the meat, keeping the flesh attached to the skin but following the contour of the skull until you have completely boned the head

    • Take the greatest care to keep your knife facing the bone at all times in order to remove as much flesh as possible

    • Follow the head from top to bottom around the forehead, then around the eyes along the snout and then along the jaw

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Slide40 l.jpg

Head

  • Preparation for Cooking

    • Lay the skin out flesh side up; clean around the ears, nose, and tongue end, removing any cartilage and sinews; remove all large fat pockets that are visible, cleaning down to the flesh

    • Remove the tongue and cut into strips about 3 inches by ½ inch (7.5 cm by 1.25 cm) and reserve

    • Now remove the skin by using a long firm ham knife and cutting under the flesh against the skin as if skinning a large salmon fillet

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Slide41 l.jpg

Head

  • Preparation for Cooking

    • Lay the flesh into the best rectangle you can make from it in between 2 sheets of strong plastic wrap and lightly beat the head into a somewhat even-looking sheet

    • Roll this up with the tongue inside, seasoning well as you go

    • Tie in muslin into a galantine shape and secure with butcher’s twine

    • Poach for 3 hours, very gently, until fully cooked

    • Cool until you can handle it, and then rewrap and tie tightly to create its final shape in fresh muslin, allowing it to chill in the cooking liquid

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Tripe l.jpg

Tripe

  • Cooking

    • Soak in acidulated water overnight and wash well the next day in plenty of running cold water

    • Cut into strips about 4 inches (10 cm) long and 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide

    • Braise or poach in rich court bouillon or good beef broth until tender

    • Add to an appropriate sauce and serve

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Tails l.jpg

Tails

  • Quality Points

    • Look for tails with an even distribution of meat and fat

    • They should have an even coating of very white fat

    • They should be skinned and trimmed of excess fat

  • They can be bought cut into chunks through cartilage between segments of bone

  • They can also be boned without damaging skin; season with salt and pepper and stuff; Roll and tie with cloth and string, like a galantine, for cooking

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Caul fat l.jpg

Caul Fat

  • Pig’s caul fat is the lining of a pig’s stomach

  • The excess fat is removed and can be used as lard

  • The remaining membrane is used as a protective wrapping for any meat item that needs to have a “natural plastic wrap” to hold it together during cooking

  • Soak it in salt water and then drain well before using

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Caul fat45 l.jpg

Caul Fat

  • It can be very delicate, so handle with care

  • It will mostly disappear when cooked, except when it has been wrapped repeatedly around a food item

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


  • Login