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NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service’s (NMFS) Biological and Conference Opinion on the Long-Term Operations of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project National Research Council Committee on Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta

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Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service’s (NMFS)

Biological and Conference Opinion on the Long-Term Operations of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project

National Research Council

Committee on Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta

January 25, 2010


Status of species

Status of Species


Central valley salmon population over time

Central Valley Salmon Population Over Time


Salmon population viability

ABUNDANCE

POP GROWTH RATE

SPATIAL

STRUCTURE

DIVERSITY

Freshwater

Estuarine

Marine

HABITAT CAPACITY AND DIVERSITY

Salmon Population Viability


Central valley spring chinook esu structure

Central Valley Spring ChinookESU Structure


Central valley steelhead esu structure

Central Valley SteelheadESU Structure


Viability criteria for populations

Viability Criteria for Populations


Viability criteria for esus

Viability Criteria for ESUs

  • At least two viable populations per diversity group

  • If possible, the populations should not have highly correlated risks of catastrophic disturbance


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Current

Status of

CV Spring-

Run

Chinook

salmon


Climate change

Climate Change


Effects of water projects on salmon

Effects of Water Projects on Salmon


Population anatomy

Population Anatomy

Historical fall-run habitatCurrent fall-run habitat


Institutional challenges

Institutional Challenges


Summary

Summary

  • Central Valley Salmonid ESUs are threatened with extinction

  • Water project facilities and operations have negative effects on fish habitat, with cascading effects on spatial structure, diversity, productivity, and abundance of populations

  • Improving in-stream flows and curtailing exports is necessary to conserve salmon, but will not be sufficient for recovery

  • An ecosystem perspective is needed to understand how human activities impact salmon

  • Adaptive management is needed to reduce risks


Scope of today s presentation

Scope of today’s presentation

  • Brief highlights of Opinion – not all topics presented due to time constraints

  • Opinion itself is a summary document of over four years of analytic work between 5 agencies

  • Biological assessment, NMFS technical memos, peer review reports are important

  • 700+ scientific citations

  • Administrative record is 150,000 pages - - documents full decision-making process


Approach to biological opinion challenges

Approach to Biological Opinion:Challenges

  • Complexity - geographic scope

  • Multi-species

  • State and federal project – combined operations

  • Number of dams and diversions

  • Economic importance of project

    • Urban water supply, agricultural water supply, commercial salmon fishery

  • Long-term proposed operations (21 years)

  • Litigation history

  • Current events (recession, drought, fishery closure)


Approach to biological opinion constraints

Approach to Biological Opinion: Constraints

  • Our task – Limited to analyzing the Federal action, as proposed

  • Uncertainty in science; risk is balanced in favor of the species

  • Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) –

    • Limited to actions within authority and discretion of USBR and DWR

    • Minimum to avoid jeopardy; NOT a recovery plan

    • Must avoid jeopardy in short-term and long-term

    • Not necessary to prove quantitatively


Consultation process

Consultation Process

  • Used a team of experienced federal biologists and hydrologists.

  • Adhered closely to legal requirements, agency guidelines, and used the best available scientific and commercial information

  • Maintained close and meaningful collaboration with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, CA Department of Water Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and CA Department of Fish and Game

  • Draft opinion peer reviewed by CALFED Independent Science Panel and Center for Independent Experts (CIE)


Scientific evidence

Scientific Evidence

  • Used best scientific and commercial information

  • Literature review - 700 citations

  • Information from previous listing decisions, critical habitat rules, etc.

  • USBR’s Biological Assessment, including model outputs

  • Draft recovery plan

  • Monitoring reports


Consultation background

Consultation Background

  • NMFS OCAP biological opinions:

    • Feb. 14, 1992, limited to winter-run Chinook salmon

    • 1993-2002, interim opinions issued due to changes in operations and new species listed

    • October 22, 2004: In 2008, Federal court invalidated that Opinion, and ordered that NMFS prepare a new Opinion.

    • June 4, 2009: Six complaints filed to date.

  • Close coordination with the USFWS throughout the OCAP consultation process


Peer reviews of the draft biological opinion

CALFED Science Panel:

James J. Anderson, University of Washington & Columbia Basin Research

Mike Deas, Watercourse Engineering, Inc.

Philip B. Duffy, Climate Central, Inc.; University of California, Merced

Daniel L. Erickson, Consultant

Reg Reisenbichler, Retired--U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Kenneth A. Rose, Louisiana State University

Peter E. Smith, Retired--USGS

CIE reviewers:

Richard A. Marston

Ian A. Fleming

E. Eric Knudsen

Peer Reviews of theDraft Biological Opinion

CALFED & CIE reviews supported NMFS overall conclusions


Peer reviews of the draft biological opinion cont d

Peer Reviews of the Draft Biological Opinion (cont’d)

  • Significant changes made in response to peer review recommendations:

    • Editing for clarity and consistency between division analyses

    • Estimate ranges of loss from compilation of existing studies, even when we did not have complete data sets

    • Assessed risk based on weighting and key lines of evidence

    • Plan for drought sequence – not a single dry year


Analytical overview

Analytical Overview

  • Evaluated each stressor by species, life stage, and location

    • Risk and uncertainty incorporated throughout

      • Weighted evidence by certainty and magnitude of effect

    • Stated assumptions, reviewed model constraints and applicability, used ranges

    • Identified all direct and indirect effects

  • Considered variability in the Bay-Delta ecosystem

  • Summed for individual, population, diversity group and species levels.


Analytical approach

ABUNDANCE

POP GROWTH RATE

SPATIAL

STRUCTURE

DIVERSITY

Freshwater

Estuarine

Marine

HABITAT CAPACITY AND DIVERSITY

Analytical Approach

  • Viable Salmonid Populations


Analytical approach cont d

Analytical Approach (cont’d)

  • Central Valley Technical Recovery Team products:

    • Historical population structure

    • Assessing viability of Central Valley salmon and steelhead populations

  • Life cycle approach


Stressors on listed species

Stressors on Listed Species

  • Loss of habitat and degraded water quality due to:

    • Non-Federal dams and diversions

    • Land use activities

  • Invasive species

  • Hatcheries

  • Harvest activities

  • Environmental variations

    • Ocean conditions

    • Climate change


Environmental baseline

Environmental Baseline


Effects overview

Effects Overview

  • Shasta Reservoir: Future operations, including climate change:

    • 5 to 65% mortality of winter-run Chinook salmon eggs and fry

  • Red Bluff Diversion Dam (RBDD):

    • Delays adult passage of up to 15% of the winter-run and up to 70% of the spring-run that spawn above the RBDD

    • Blocks up to 35% of green sturgeon from its only known spawning ground

  • American River:

    • Mean water temperatures > 65°F, results in increased incidence of disease in juvenile steelhead

    • ~75% of time in June, 100% in July and August, >95% in September


Effects overview cont d

Effects Overview (cont’d)

  • Juvenile survival at export facilities:

    • About 1 in 3 survive through the Federal facilities

    • About 1 in 6 survive through the State facilities

  • Overall mortality in the interior Delta:

    • 35-90% of those that enter interior Delta

    • 5-20% of each winter-run Chinook salmon population

  • Juvenile San Joaquin River steelhead:

    90-99% mortality from project and non-project stressors

  • Reduction in approximately 13-15% fall- and late fall-run Chinook salmon, which is killer whale prey; effects from hatchery management.


Findings of the biological opinion

Findings of the Biological Opinion

  • OCAP would likely jeopardize:

    • Sacramento winter-run Chinook salmon

    • Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon

    • Central Valley steelhead

    • Southern DPS of North American green sturgeon

    • Southern Resident killer whales

  • Destruction or adverse modification of designated and proposed critical habitat

  • Central California Coast steelhead – not likely to adversely affect this species or its critical habitat


Reasonable and prudent alternative rpa overview

Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) Overview

  • Identified actions to alleviate major stressors for each species and summed these for short-term and long-term

  • Included appropriate flexibilities in RPA where possible

  • Monitoring, reporting, research, adaptive management


Rpa overview cont d

RPA Overview (cont’d)

  • Scope – minimum to avoid jeopardy

    • Over 50 individual actions grouped by division, plus a fish passage program

  • Themes:

    • Water quantity and quality

    • gravel augmentation

    • improve passage

    • decrease entrainment

    • engineered solutions


Key elements of the rpa

Key Elements of the RPA

  • Clear Creek below Whiskeytown Dam - increased flows and reduced temperatures

  • Shasta Reservoir and the Upper Sacramento River - new temperature management program

  • Shasta Dam - long-term passage prescriptions to allow re-introduction of listed salmon

  • Red Bluff Diversion Dam - interim gate operations until 2012, then gates up all year.

  • Lower Sacramento River basin and Delta - improved juvenile rearing habitat


Key elements of the rpa cont d

Key Elements of the RPA (cont’d)

  • American River - New flow and temperature plan; fish passage at Folsom Dam

    • Hatchery Genetics Management Plan for Nimbus Hatchery for steelhead and fall-run Chinook salmon.

  • Stanislaus River – new flow schedule, temperature criteria, and habitat improvements

  • Delta Cross Channel Gates - Additional gate closures during key times when listed fish are likely to be migrating through the area


Key elements of the rpa cont d1

Key Elements of the RPA (cont’d)

  • Old and Middle Rivers - Flows will be modified to reduce the number of juveniles exposed to the Delta pumps, and fish salvage improvements to reduce mortality

  • San Joaquin Basin - Increased flows and pumping curtailments.

  • Studies – 6 year study of acoustic tagged fish in the San Joaquin Basin to evaluate the effectiveness of the RPA and refine it over the life-time of the project.


Rpa flexibilities

RPA Flexibilities

  • Real-time operations

  • Phased-in implementation

  • Performance-based approaches

  • Take limits based on annual juvenile production estimates

  • Actions tiered to water year type/drought exception

  • Research and adaptive management


Other alternative rpa actions

Other Alternative RPA Actions

  • Evaluated during consultation and rejected (ineffective, critical habitat concerns, smelt concerns, predation issues, etc):

    • Trap and haul of San Joaquin steelhead

    • New screens at the existing pumps

    • New screens in the Delta (e.g., Georgiana Slough)

    • Permanent operable barriers at Head of Old River

    • Non-physical barrier alone at the Head of Old River (without increased flows and export curtailments)


Alternatives continued

Alternatives (continued)

Alternatives to water supply evaluated and included in RPA:

  • Gravel augmentation

  • Rearing habitat restoration

  • Engineered solutions, including:

    • New fish screen at Red Bluff

    • New temperature infrastructure at Whiskeytown and Folsom Dams

    • Retrofits to existing salvage facilities

    • Non-physical barrier (bubble curtain)


Sacramento river division

Sacramento River Division

Bruce Oppenheim


Shasta dam and reservoir

Shasta Dam and Reservoir


Carry over storage in shasta

Carry over Storage in Shasta

Long-term Average Annual and End of September Storage Differences for Shasta Storage, Spring Creek Tunnel Flow, and Keswick Release

Study 6.0 = 2004 operations Study 7.1 = near future operations

Study 7.0 =current operationsStudy 8.0 = future operations


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Calsim and Sacramento River Water Quality Modeling results for temperature exceedances at Balls Ferry under future conditions Study 8.0

76

74

Avg

Max

72

5%

70

10%

68

25%

66

50%

75%

64

90%

62

95%

60

Min

Mean Daily Temperature (F)

58

56

54

52

50

48

46

44

42

40

38

1/1

1/22

2/12

3/5

3/26

4/16

5/7

5/28

6/18

7/9

7/30

8/20

9/10

10/1

10/22

11/12

12/3

12/24

Date (month/day)


Egg and fry mortality by water year type at balls ferry

Study 7.1

(near future)

Study 6.0

(2004)

Study 7.0

(current)

Study 8.0

(future)

Percent Mortality

Water Year Type

Egg and Fry Mortality by Water Year Type at Balls Ferry


Temperature effects with climate change

Temperature effects with Climate Change


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Study 7.1

(near future)

Study 6.0

(2004)

Study 7.0

(current)

Study 8.0

(future)

Percent Mortality

Water Year Type


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Percent Mortality

Water Year Type


Summary of significant effects on the mainstem sacramento river

Summary of Significant Effects on the Mainstem Sacramento River

  • Long-term average loss of 121 TAF September carry-over storage (including effects of climate change) will:

    • Eliminate spring-run spawning in the mainstem

    • Reduce winter-run spawning habitat in the mainstem

    • Increase egg mortality substantially in consideration of climate change [i.e., Critical years increases to 5 to 65% for winter-run, 40 to 95% for spring-run (Sac. R mainstem only), and 4% for steelhead (based on late fall-run Chinook salmon as a surrogate)].

    • Result in shorter emigration period and lower survival for juvenile salmonids


Red bluff diversion dam rbdd gates in open position looking upstream

Red Bluff Diversion Dam (RBDD) Gates in Open Position Looking Upstream


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

4 months closed

2 months closed


Effect of operations on winter run chinook salmon

Effect of Operations on Winter-Run Chinook Salmon


Summary of the main effects from operating rbdd

Summary of the Main Effects from Operating RBDD

  • Adult upstream migration:

    • Delays passage of up to 15% of the winter-run and

      up to 70% of the spring-run

    • Blocks up to 35% of green sturgeon from its main spawning ground.

  • Juvenile downstream migration:

    • Higher predation rates on juvenile winter-run, steelhead, and green sturgeon as they pass through Lake Red Bluff and the diversion gates (i.e., 45% to 50% during May).

  • Critical habitat: Adverse modification of 6 stream miles from inundation behind RBDD.


Rpa actions to address key sacramento river division effects

RPA Actions to Address Key Sacramento River Division Effects

  • Clear Creek: New temperature curtain in Whiskeytown

    • Reduce temperatures in October

  • Shasta Reservoir: Higher Shasta storage required in Sept. & April

  • Shasta Dam: New temperature management program

  • Upper Sacramento River:

    • Long-term passage prescriptions at Shasta Dam to allow re-introduction of listed salmon

    • RBDD gates up, year round by 2012

  • Lower Sacramento River and Delta: Restore juvenile rearing habitat


American river division

American River Division


Lower american river lar

Lower American River (LAR)


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Exposure to daily mean water temps. above 65°F are associated with anal vent inflammation in juvenile steelhead in the LAR

June

July


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

August

September


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

“VSP” = Viable Salmonid Population

Folsom and Nimbus Dams

Entrainment

Loss of natural river function

Flow fluctuations

Predation

Redd scour

Low flows

Nimbus hatchery

Warm water temps

Angling impacts

Baseline Stressors

Project Stressors


Summary of main effects on the lower american river

Summary of Main Effects on the Lower American River

  • Mean water temperatures above 65°F ~75% in June, 100% in July and August, >95% in September, resulting in increased incidence of disease in juvenile steelhead.

  • Reduced genetic diversity from hatchery management program.


Rpa actions to address key american river division effects

RPA Actions to Address Key American River Division Effects

  • New flow and temperature plan; fish passage at Folsom Dam

  • Structural modifications for

    • Improved water temperature control device at Folsom Dam

    • Temperature control curtains at Lake Natoma

    • Temperature control at El Dorado Irrigation District Diversion

  • Hatchery Genetics Management Plan for Nimbus Hatchery for steelhead and Fall-run Chinook salmon.


Eastside division

Eastside Division

New Melones and Stanislaus River operations

Rhonda Reed


Stanislaus river new melones dam

Stanislaus River – New Melones Dam

  • Listed Species: Central Valley steelhead

  • Southern Sierra Nevada diversity group

  • Current population numbers very low for all 4 populations

Stanislaus

Tuolumne

Merced


Summary of the main effects on the stanislaus river

Summary of the Main Effects on the Stanislaus River

  • Temperature

    • Water temperatures too warm for CV steelhead, 3-20% of time , especially May-Sept.


Summary of the main effects on the stanislaus river1

Summary of the Main Effects on the Stanislaus River

  • Temperature

  • Flow

    • Instream flow requirements for CV steelhead not addressed


Impaired flow pattern affects habitat

Impaired Flow Pattern Affects Habitat

Unimpaired

Impaired


Summary of the main effects on the stanislaus river2

Summary of the Main Effects on the Stanislaus River

  • Temperature

  • Flow

  • Ongoing critical habitat degradation

    • Channel incision cuts off rearing habitat

    • Spawning gravel washed out

    • Channel encroachment.


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Modeled Monthly Temperature Exceedance Probability:

July- Orange Blossom Bridge

Daily Temperature Variability


Stanislaus river minimum steelhead flows

Stanislaus River Minimum Steelhead Flows


Above normal releases vs minimum flow schedule

Above Normal Releases vs Minimum Flow Schedule


Channel demobilization

Channel Demobilization

Kondolf, et al. 2001


Rpa actions to address key east side division effects

RPA Actions to Address Key East Side Division Effects

  • Establish Stanislaus Operations Group

  • Set operational temperature criteria

  • Set minimum flows for steelhead survival

  • Channel maintaining flows in wet years

  • Habitat improvements for spawning and rearing habitat, building on Central Valley Project Improvement Act authorities

  • Assess fish passage past New Melones Dam


Delta division

Delta Division

Jeff Stuart


Key elements in delta division

Key Elements in Delta Division

Climate Change

DCC Gates

Proposed Export Changes

Direct Entrainment at Project Facilities

Indirect Mortality within Delta

San Joaquin River Inflow to Delta


Temporal occurrence of species in delta

Temporal Occurrence of Species in Delta


Climate change impacts to delta

Climate Change Impacts to Delta:

Fall and winter seasons have greatest sensitivity to climate change according to OCAP modeling.

Drier climates:

In wet years: > risk of pumping entrainment in winter compared to current climate.

In dry years: minimal change in OMR flows during winter and spring.

Wetter climates:

In wet years: < pumping entrainment risk in winter, more positive OMR flows

In dry years: > risks in the winter , slightly more negative OMR flows


Dcc gate operations

DCC Gates

Sacramento River

DCC Gate Operations

S

E

W

N


Dcc gates

DCC Gates

  • Manmade channel (early 1950s) to enhance water quality for CVP exports at Tracy

  • Can pass 6,000 cfs when gates are open, ≈ 20 to 25 percent of Sacramento River flow at Freeport can move into the Mokelumne River

  • Listed salmonids are diverted into the channel when the gates are open. Entrainment rate is related to river flow, time of day, and tidal cycle.

  • Survival of these fish is substantially lower than those fish that remain in the Sacramento River .

  • Early migrating salmon and steelhead (Nov – Jan) are at risk under current operations schedule.


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Timing of Juvenile winter-run passage at Knights Landing

rotary screw trap sampling 1995-2006

(Low, White, and Chappell 2006)


Rpa overview for dcc gates

RPA Overview for DCC Gates

  • Integrate current monitoring triggers with new gate operations in December and January.

  • Close DCC gates from December 15 to January 31.

  • Weekly evaluations of monitoring data by the Delta Operations for Salmonids and Sturgeon technical team (DOSS).

  • Flexibility of gate operations regarding water quality criteria and experimental studies.

  • Study alternative engineering solutions to control access to the Delta interior


Modeled changes in export levels

Modeled Changes in Export Levels

CVP and SWP exports increase in both near future (Study 7.1) and future conditions (Study 8.0) compared to the current condition (Study 7.0).

Significant increases in exports during the late fall and winter time frames over current operations.

SWP exports increase in April and May due to decrease in “fish water” available for export curtailment.


Effects to listed salmonids

Effects to Listed Salmonids

Elevated exports result in an increased potential for entrainment at the export facilities, as well as migrational delays for fish entering the Delta interior,

Increases in exports reflected in increased negative Old and Middle River flows

Diversion of listed fish into the interior of the Delta increases the risk of mortality (i.e., predation) as well as exposure to contaminants in the Delta interior. Overall mortality in the interior Delta:

35-90% of those that enter the interior Delta

5-20% of winter-run Chinook salmon population entering the Delta

San Joaquin River Basin fish have an increased vulnerability to entrainment with increased exports levels.


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

SWP

CVP

Flow Patterns in the Delta


Projected old and middle river flows

Projected Old and Middle River Flows


Particle entrainment at the export facilities under different omr flows

Particle Entrainment at the Export Facilities under different OMR flows

~ 40%

USFWS 2008


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Initial Slope

SWP Loss vs. OMR flows


Rpa overview for exports

RPA Overview for Exports

  • Integrate current monitoring triggers with new export operations January through June.

  • Limit OMR flows, no more negative than -5,000 cfs January through June.

  • Staged Reductions in exports when fish are present at the facilities, measured by OMR flow levels.

  • Weekly review of operations and fish salvage by the DOSS technical group.

  • Actions compatible with the FWS Delta smelt actions


Direct entrainment at project facilities

Direct Entrainment at Project Facilities

  • Survival is low through the salvage facilities:

    • 1 out of 6 fish survive at the SWP

    • 1 out of 3 fish survive at the CVP

  • Screening Efficiency

  • Predation issues

  • CHTR operations (Collection, Handling, Trucking and Release)


Overall survival estimates of fish collection actions

Overall survival estimates of fish collection actions


Rpa overview for direct export entrainment

RPA Overview for Direct Export Entrainment

  • Increase overall salvage efficiency to 75% for both facilities

  • Directed actions for both facilities include:

    • Improve screening efficiency/operations

    • Reduce predation losses

    • Improve reporting methodology

  • Improve survival of salvaged fish releases

    • Release fish from mobile barges, multiple release sites, or other methods


Indirect mortality in delta interior

Indirect Mortality in Delta Interior

Assessed indirect mortality within delta interior utilizing applicable studies and literature.

Compared export and non-export related mortality within the interior delta utilizing DWR’s Delta Survival model and CalSim II output from Studies 7.0 (current operations),

7.1 (near future operations), and 8.0 (future operations).

Assessed recent survival studies utilizing acoustically tagged fish.


Results from dwr survival model

Monthly export related mortality for Sacramento River fish ranged from <1% to 15% combining all studies and water year types for the period between December and June.

Monthly Indirect mortality (non-export) for Sacramento River fish ranged from 3% to 32% combining all studies and water year types for the period between December and June.

Higher E/I ratios had higher mortality levels.

Higher E/I ratios typically occurred in December and January in drier hydrological conditions.

Monthly total population mortality for Sacramento River basin fish migrating downstream in the Sacramento River ranged from 23% to 59% under same conditions as above.

Results from DWR Survival Model


Rpa overview for indirect mortality

RPA Overview for Indirect Mortality

  • Indirect mortality is related to most of the project elements associated with the Delta

  • The suite of RPA actions that focus on the Delta elements act in concert to reduce indirect mortality by reducing exposure to the sources of mortality


San joaquin river inflow to the delta

San Joaquin River Inflow to the Delta

  • OCAP assumes that VAMP – like flows and exports will continue into the future.

  • BUT: No defined description of this operation has been presented to date and there is limited “fish water” available to offset VAMP water costs in the future.

  • Spring-time flows currently seen during the VAMP operations on the Tuolumne River and Merced River are likely to decline

  • Project and non-project stressors result in 90-99% mortality of Juvenile San Joaquin River steelhead.

  • Increased survival and subsequent adult returns are linked to increased river flows during the juvenile outmigration period


Relationship of april and may flows to adult escapement

Relationship of April and May flows to Adult Escapement


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Total Escapement to the San Joaquin River Tributaries, 1951 through 1996,

And Spring Time flows 2.5 years Earlier

From Baker and Morhardt, 2001


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

Relationship between Adult Fall-run Chinook Salmon Escapement

and the Vernalis flow to export ratio 2.5 years earlier

From 2006 VAMP report


Rpa overview for san joaquin river flows into the delta

RPA Overview for San Joaquin River Flows into the Delta

  • Flows are based on previous studies and historical gaged flows at Vernalis.

  • Numerous iterations of the proposed flow criteria were run to examine the effects of the action before deciding on a final action.

  • RPA is phased in over time

  • Flexibility in RPA pertaining to water year type and drought conditions

  • Continuing adaptive management


Noaa national marine fisheries service s nmfs

NMFS’ OCAP Opinion is located at http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/ocap.htm


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