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HUMANISM THE IDEOLOGY OF THE RENAISSANCE. FOCUSED ON THIS WORLD!. The Humanism Tree. Individualism. Educational Reform. Public Involvement (Civic Humanism). Religious Reform (Christian or Northern Humanism). Secularism. Study of Classical Greek & Roman Texts AND Early Christian Texts.

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HUMANISM

THE IDEOLOGY OF THE RENAISSANCE


FOCUSED ON THIS WORLD!

The Humanism Tree

Individualism

Educational Reform

Public Involvement

(Civic Humanism)

Religious Reform

(Christian or Northern Humanism)

Secularism

Study of Classical Greek & Roman Texts AND Early Christian Texts



Plato

Pericles

Cicero

Augustus

Caesar

Vergil



Humanism Readings

Letter to Livy

Petrarch – The Father of Humanism!


Lorenzo valla

Lorenzo Valla

  • Italian diplomat & political philosopher

  • In The Prince he describes how a “new” ruler can best control his realm – It is a how-to book for acquiring power

  • Drew upon examples in classical history to illustrate his ideas

  • Argues that rulers must appear to be moral, but also must be willing to do immoral things

  • Italian Humanist

  • Proved that “Donation of Constantine” granting the pope all of the Western Roman Empire was a FORGERY

  • Although supposedly written in the 4th century AD, the language used indicated that it came from the 8th century AD




Humanism Readings

Oration on the Dignity of Man

Pico dellaMirandola


An Educational Reform Movement?

  • Humanists sought to change education by …

  • Better teaching people how to live wise, worthwhile, happy lives

    • Rhetoric

    • Writing

    • Morals

  • Urging men to acquire talents in a wide range of activities (Renaissance Man)

  • Humanists sought to change education by …

  • Better preparing students for life (rhetoric, writing skills, moral example of ancients)

  • Urging men to be well-rounded, skilled in many things



Humanism Readings

The Book of the Courtier

Castiglione



Civic Humanists believed that citizens should participate in public affairs and use their wisdom for the benefit of all.


Machiavelli & The Prince


Machiavelli

Machiavelli

  • Diplomat from Florence

  • Sought to rid Italy of foreign invaders

  • Wrote The Prince as a guide for how rulers could maintain power

  • A realist – Concerned with how man really behaved, not with how he should behave

  • Believed that man was a selfish creature,and that rulers had to take this into account

  • Argued that rulers had to do whatever was necessary to protect their states, regardless of moral considerations

  • Looked to Ancient Rome for examples of good leadership & institutions

  • Italian diplomat & political philosopher

  • In The Prince he describes how a “new” ruler can best control his realm – It is a how-to book for acquiring power

  • Drew upon examples in classical history to illustrate his ideas

  • Argues that rulers must appear to be moral, but also must be willing to do immoral things


Humanism Readings

“The Fox and the Lion”


Humanism Readings

“Willingness to Do Evil”


Humanism Readings

“Whether it is Better To Be Loved than Feared”




Christian Humanists wanted to use Biblical teachings as a guide for moral living.


Erasmus

Erasmus

“The Prince of Humanism”

  • Dutch Humanist

  • Most famous work: Praise of Folly

  • Highly critical of the church and corrupt clergy

  • Believed church had lost sight of original purpose, becoming too focused on ceremony, wealth, & politics

  • “Philosophy of Christ” – WWJD?

  • Wrote a new version of New Testament correcting errors in Latin version (The Vulgate)

  • Wanted to correct church from within, but “laid the egg that Luther hatched”

  • Italian diplomat & political philosopher

  • In The Prince he describes how a “new” ruler can best control his realm – It is a how-to book for acquiring power

  • Drew upon examples in classical history to illustrate his ideas

  • Argues that rulers must appear to be moral, but also must be willing to do immoral things


Humanism Readings

“Pope Julius II Excluded from Heaven”


Humanism Readings

“The Philosophy of Christ”



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