Memorandums and letters
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Memorandums and Letters. Apply correct memo and letter formats. What are Memorandums?. A memorandum is a short message from one person to another in the same business or organization. Memorandums are usually referred to as memos. Memos have no salutation line and no signature area at the end.

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Memorandums and letters

Memorandums and Letters

Apply correct memo and letter formats.


What are memorandums

What are Memorandums?

  • A memorandum is a short message from one person to another in the same business or organization.

  • Memorandums are usually referred to as memos.

  • Memos have no salutation line and no signature area at the end.


Memo formatting rules

Memo Formatting Rules

  • Use a standard font style and font size i.e. Times New Roman/Arial and 12 point font.

  • Single Space within paragraphs and double space between paragraphs.

  • All parts of the memo begin at the left margin, including paragraphs. (Block Style Format)

Margins:TM-2inchesRM-1inch

BM-1inchLM-1inch


Memorandums and letters

Memo HeadingThe formal memorandum uses a special heading, sometimes preprinted on stationery. Typically, words in the memo heading are keyed in ALL CAPS, bold, followed by a colon, and double spaced as follows:

TO:(Reader’s name)

FROM:(Author’s name)

DATE:(Complete and current date)

SUBJECT:(What the memo is about)


Keying formal memos

Keying Formal Memos

2”

TO:Tab Tab Receiver’s name

(DS)

FROM:Tab Author’s name

(DS)

DATE:Tab Current date

(DS)

SUBJECT:Tab Memo topic

(DS)

Body-Message of the memo

(DS)

Typist initials

  • The memo heading should by keyed in all capital letters, bold, and followed by a colon.

  • Use the tab key to align information following the memo heading.

  • When keying the body, single space within paragraphs and double between paragraphs.

1”

1”

1”


Parts of a memo

Memo heading

Memo body

Typist initials

Parts of a Memo


Notes to remember

Notes to Remember!

  • If someone other than the writer of the memo keys the memo, typist initials should be included.

  • Typist initials are keyed in lower case with no space and no punctuation.

  • If you have an attachment or enclosure notation, double space after typing typist initials and type “Enclosure” or “Attachment.

    • Enclosure-Something is included with the memo.

    • Attachment-Supporting document is attached by a paper clip, staple, etc.

  • If someone in addition to who the memo is originally written will be receiving a copy of the memo, include a copy “c” notation.


Types of letters

Types of Letters

Business Letter

  • A business letter is sent from a business or organization to an individual or to another business or organization.

  • Business letters are usually keyed on letterhead. The letterhead can consist of the business’ name, address, phone/fax/email, and logo.

Personal—Business Letter

  • A personal-business letter is a letter that is sent from an individual using their home address to a person or business/organization.


Major parts of a letter

Major Parts of a Letter

  • Return Address-the address of the person writing the letter. Letterhead if the letter is from a business.

  • Dateline-Complete and current date.

  • Letter Address/Inside Address-the address of the person receiving the letter.

  • Salutation-the greeting of the letter. Example: Dear Sir or Madam:

  • Body-the message of the letter.

  • Complimentary Close-the ending of the letter. Example: Sincerely yours,

  • Keyed Name-the authors typed name.

  • Handwritten Signature-the author signs the letter after it has been printed.

  • Typist Initials-initials of the typist..


Formatting a letter

Formatting a Letter

Margins:TM-2inchesRM-1inch

BM-1inchLM-1inch

  • Paragraphs should not be indented in this style of letter.

  • Use a standard font style and font size i.e. Times New Roman/Arial and 12 point font.

  • Single Space within paragraphs and double space between paragraphs.

Block Style is one method of formatting a letter. In this style of letter writing all parts of the letter are keyed at the left margin.


Memorandums and letters

Return address

Letter address

Body

Date

Salutation

Complimentary Close

Enclosure notation

Writer

Parts of a Block Style Letter

Copy Notation—key a DS after the last line of the letter.


Punctuation styles

Punctuation Styles

Open Punctuation

  • There is not a colon or comma in the salutation and there is not a comma in the complimentary closing.

Example:

Dear Ms. Smith

Sincerely yours

Example:

Dear Ms. Smith:

Sincerely yours,

Mixed Punctuation

  • A colon is in the salutation and a comma is in the close.


Personal business letter with mixed punctuation

Return Address:

The personal-business letter uses the return address with the dateline a single space beneath.

Mixed Punctuation:

The colon is keyed in the salutation and the comma is keyed in the complimentary close.

Personal—Business Letterwith Mixed Punctuation


Business letter with open punctuation

Letterhead:

The business letter uses letterhead instead of a return address, which consists of the business’ name, address, phone/fax/email, and logo.

Open Punctuation:

The colon is not keyed in the salutation and the comma is not keyed in the complimentary close.

Business Letter with Open Punctuation


Special letter parts

Special Letter Parts

  • Typist initials are used when someone other than the author types the letter. Typed a DS below the writer’s name, in lowercase letters, with no space or punctuation.

  • Enclosure notation is used when additional items are included in the envelope with the letter.

  • Attachment notation is used when additional items are clipped, stapled, etc… to the letter.

  • Copy notation is used when a copy of the letter is sent to someone in addition to the addressee/letter address.


Block style letter with special parts

Block Style Letter with Special Parts

  • Typist Initial Typed a double space below the author’s keyed name.

  • Enclosure Notation Typed a double space below the typist initials.

  • Copy Notation Typed a double space below the enclosure notation.


Notes to remember1

Notes to Remember!

  • A personal business letter is correspondence sent from an individual using their home address to a person or organization.

  • A business letter is correspondence sent from a business to another business or to an individual. Because letterhead stationery is used, the return address is not keyed.

  • The top margin is usually 2“, side and bottom margins are typically 1".

  • Block format is one style of writing for personal-business and business letters in which all parts of the letter begin at the left margin.

  • Typist initials are the initials of the typist and are used when someone other than the writer prepares the letter. Lowercase letters are used, with no space, and with no punctuation, appearing a double space below the signature.

  • Enclosure/Attachment and Copy notations appear a double space below the typist initials.


Paragraph formats

Paragraph Formats

Implement paragraph formats.


Paragraph formats1

Paragraph Formats

Block style – all lines of text are aligned with the left margin

  • the first line of a paragraph isnot indented

  • commonly used when formatting letters and memos

Indented – the first line of a paragraph is indented

  • use the Tab key to indent paragraphs

  • commonly used when formatting reports

Example:

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Example:

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Paragraph formats2

Paragraph Formats

Hanging indent – a temporary left margin that indents all lines except the first line of text

  • the first line is flush with the left margin; each additional line is indented

  • commonly used when citing bibliography sources

Example:

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Horizontal centering

Horizontal Centering

  • When text is centered between the left and right margin

  • Commonly used

    when formatting:

    • Invitations

    • Announcements

    • Title pages

Lets Hoop It Up!!!

Participate in our

Hoops For Heart

Campaign to help raise money for the

American Heart Association

February 27-March 3, 2006

See your PE teacher for more details.


Horizontal centering using the menu bar

Horizontal CenteringUsing the menu bar

1. Access the Format menu bar option

2. Select the Paragraph option


Horizontal centering using the menu bar1

Horizontal CenteringUsing the menu bar

3. Choose Centered alignment from the Paragraph window


Horizontal centering using the tool bar

Horizontal CenteringUsing the tool bar

Click on the Center alignment button on the tool bar


Vertical centering

Vertical Centering

  • When text is centered

    between the top and bottom

    margin

  • Commonly used when

    formatting:

    • Invitations

    • Announcements

    • Title pages


Vertical centering1

Vertical Centering

1. Select Page Setup from the File menu bar option


Vertical centering2

Vertical Centering

2. Select the Layout tab from the Page Setup window

3. Choose Center alignment from the Vertical alignment list


Obj 3 01

Obj. 3.01

Business Documents:

Research Report

and

Table of Contents


Research report mla

Research Report(MLA)

What is a ResearchReport?

  • It is a multi-page document that usually contains several sub-topics of information related to one main topic.

    • Example of use (of a Research Report):

      • A marketing research report summarizing the supply and demand statistics for a new product.


Research report components

Research Report:Components

  • Components of a Research Report:

    • Title page(optional) – includes the following:

      • the name of the document

      • the writer’sname

      • the teacher/professor’sname (optional), and

      • the dateofpublication


Research report components continued

Research Report:Components (Continued)

The Titleof a report is required.

The Title includes the identifying

information and is keyed in the top

left margin of the Report.


Research report components continued1

Research Report:Components (Continued)

AHeader is placed on every page of the report and includes:

  • thewriter’s last name,and

  • the page number


Research report components continued2

Research Report:Components (Continued)

The Bodyof the Report is the content

(the paragraphs).

Parentheticalcitationsare reference notes keyed in the body of the report.


Research report components continued3

Research Report:Components (Continued)

Endnotes/Footnotes:

  • Endnotes and Footnotes are another type of referenceformatused in reports, but recommended for use only when necessary to add commentary or to clarify.

  • Endnotes are typically used to add commentary

  • References are used to cite a source


Research report components continued4

Research Report:Components (Continued)

A Works Citedis:

  • a complete listing of referencescited parenthetically in the Report

  • it is keyed on a separate page

    Notes (Page):

  • a complete list of resources and references used to accompany endnotes

  • it is keyed on a separate page


Table of contents toc

Table of Contents (TOC)

A Table of Contents is:

  • used to accompany a report, document, or manuscript to list the topicsand sub-topics in the order in which they occur.

    • Example of use of a TOC:

      • Chronological listing with page numbers of

        contents of an accompanying research report


Table of contents toc continued

Table of Contents (TOC) (continued)

  • Components (in order)

  • Table of Contents (title)

  • List of topics and subtopics and their respective page numbers

  • Page number - in Roman Numeral style at the bottom of the page


Tables

Tables

Apply correct table format.


What is a table

A table is a grid of rows and columns used to display and organize information.

What is a Table?


Creating a table

Columns

Cell

Rows

Gridlines

Creating a Table

  • Tables are created by defining the number of rows and columns that will be needed to enter information.

  • Rows show the horizontal arrangement of data.

  • Columns show the vertical arrangement of data.

  • Cells are the boxes that are formed as the row and column intersect.

  • Gridlinesare the vertical and horizontal lines in the table.


Formatting a table

DS

Center the main title in all capital letters and bold.

Right align number entries.

Left align or center text entries.

Key the $ symbol in the first entry to show currency.

DS

Center the secondary title in initial caps and bold.

Center and bold column headings.

Left align the source note under the table, which identifies the source of the information in the table.

SS or DS between table entries (body).

Formatting a Table

EAST MIDDLE SCHOOLCareer and Technical Education


Parts of a table

Secondary Title

Main Title

Column Headings

Body

Source

Parts of a Table

Key the $ symbol in the first entry to show currency for the number entries.

Key the $ symbol with total entries to show currency.


Inserting tables

If the table is the only object on the page:

Center the table vertically, leaving equal top and bottom margins.

Center the table horizontally, leaving equal left and right margins.

For best results use automatic vertical and horizontal centering features in your word processing software (if available).

Equal top and bottom margins

Equal left and right margins

Inserting Tables


Inserting tables1

DS

DS

Inserting Tables

  • If the table is inserted between text:

    • Double space above and below the table.


Table notes to remember

Table Notes to Remember

  • Center the main title in all capital letters and bold.

  • Double space after the main title.

  • Center secondary titles in initial caps, and bold.

  • Double space after the secondary title.

  • Center align and bold column headings.

  • Single or Double space is appropriate between entries.

  • Text entries may be aligned on the left or centered.

  • Numerical entries are usually right aligned.

  • The source note should be left aligned under the table.


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