Carbs
Download
1 / 37

Carbs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 122 Views
  • Uploaded on

Carbs. Greatest biomass of biopolymers Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones Many functions Structure. Fuel Energy storage Adhesion Lubrication signalling tagging for siting, function. Carbohydrates. Degree of polymerization. Monosaccharides

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Carbs' - alima


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Carbohydrates

Greatest biomass of biopolymers

Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones

Many functions

Structure

Fuel

Energy storage

Adhesion

Lubrication

signalling

tagging for siting, function

Carbohydrates


Degree of polymerization
Degree of polymerization

  • Monosaccharides

    • Storage, energy modules, metabolic intermediates

  • Disaccharides, trisaccharides

    • Storage

  • Oligosaccharides

    • Molecular Recognition

  • Polysaccharides

    • Structure, storage


Fisher projections of chiral monosaccharides
Fisher Projectionsof chiral monosaccharides

  • Next-to-bottom carbon hydroxyl extends to the right --- a D sugar; cf. with L amino acid




Hemiacetal ketal structures of monosaccharides
Hemiacetal/-ketal structures of monosaccharides

  • Reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with an alcohol

    • favorable intramolecular reaction



Intramolecular hemiacetals ketals of monosaccharides are rings
Intramolecular hemiacetals/ketals of monosaccharides are RINGS

stereo

chair

open chain

Haworth


Anomers
Anomers RINGS

  • Sugars that vary in configuration about the anomeric (aldehydic or ketonic) carbon

  • Convention:  = hydroxyl down,

     = hydroxyl up


Fig 9 6
fig 9-6 RINGS


Fig 9 7
Fig 9-7 RINGS


Hexose derivatives
Hexose derivatives RINGS

  • Amino sugars

    • Acetamido sugars

  • Deoxy sugars

    • Fucose, rhamnose, abequose

  • Other glycosidic additives

    • Lactic acid

  • Oxidized sugars

  • Sugar phosphates


Fig 9 9
Fig 9-9 RINGS


Reducing sugars
Reducing sugars RINGS

  • Aldehydes are oxidized by mild agents

    • Cu2+ + aldehyde (or -hydroxyketone)  Cu+ + acid

  • Disaccharides react more slowly


Fig 9 10
Fig 9-10 RINGS


Disaccharides
Disaccharides RINGS

  • Glycosidic linkage

    • Acetal (or ketal) formed. 2nd monosaccharide acts as an alcohol



Disaccharide cont
Disaccharide, cont RINGS

  • Reducing

    • one anomeric C not glycosidically linked

  • Nonreducing

    • Both anomeric C’s linked (fructose, trehalose)


Disaccharide nomenclature
Disaccharide nomenclature RINGS

  • Nonreducing end on left

  • Linkage –(nm)-

  • Reducing end

    Note that nonreducing end configuration is fixed

    Reducing end can mutarotate, thus 1st component given as - or -, 2nd ambiguous (next slide)


Fig 9 11
Fig 9-11 RINGS


Table 9 1
Table 9-1 RINGS


Important disaccharides
Important disaccharides RINGS

  • Maltose

  • Lactose

  • Sucrose

  • Trehalose


Fig 9 12
Fig 9-12 RINGS


Table 9 2
Table 9-2 RINGS


Storage polysaccharides
Storage polysaccharides RINGS

  • Plants

    • Starch

      • Amylose – llinear polyglucose, -1,4 linked (-D-glucopyranosyl-(14)-…), M ~ 106

      • Amylopectin –polyglucose, -1,4 linked, -1,6 branched 1 per 24-30, M ~ 108

  • Animals

    • Glycogen

      • polyglucose, -1,4 linked, -1,6 branched 1 per 24-30, M ~ 106


Fig 9 15 b
Fig 9-15 b RINGS


Fig 9 14
Fig 9-14 RINGS

0.10 m

1.0 m


Fig 9 15
fig 9-15 RINGS


Structural polysaccharides
Structural Polysaccharides RINGS

  • Plants

    • Cellulose – linear polyglucose

    •  1,4 linked

    • M ~ 106

  • Certain exoskeletons

    • Chitin – linear poly(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine)

    •  1,4 linked


Fig 9 17a and 9 18
Fig 9-17a and 9-18 RINGS

Cellulose

Chitin


Structural polysaccharides cont
Structural polysaccharides, cont RINGS

  • Bacterial cell walls – peptidoglycans

  • Extracellular matrix of multicellular animals - glycosaminoglycans


Fig 9 19
Fig 9-19 RINGS


Fig 9 20
Fig 9-20 RINGS


Sugar protein and sugar lipid conjugates
Sugar-protein and sugar-lipid conjugates RINGS

  • Glycoconjugates

    • Proteoglycans

      • Glycosaminoglycans bound to proteins

    • Glycoproteins

      • Oligosaccharides bound to proteins

    • Glycolipids

      • Oligosaccharides bound to lipids (heads of membrane lipids)


Fig 9 29
Fig 9-29 RINGS


Fig 9 27
Fig 9-27 RINGS


ad