Searching for the first galaxies
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Warm greetings to KIAA-PKU from [email protected] Searching for the first galaxies. Junxian Wang University of Science and Technology of China Beijing, June. 2008. Z=0.158. How to find high redshift galaxies?. Look very hard Get lucky

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Searching for the first galaxies

Warm greetings to KIAA-PKU

from [email protected]

Searching for the first galaxies

Junxian Wang

University of Science and Technology of China

Beijing, June. 2008


Searching for the first galaxies

Z=0.158


How to find high redshift galaxies

How to find high redshift galaxies?

  • Look very hard

  • Get lucky

  • Look next to something else

  • Watch the fireworks

  • Look smart (LBG, Lyman-α galaxies, submm)

  • get some help

  • etc

Credit: Mark Dickinson


Galaxy clusters as a cosmic telescopes

Galaxy Clusters as a“Cosmic Telescopes”


Lyman from young galaxies

Lyman α from Young Galaxies

Young galaxies forming their first stars produce copious ionizing radiation, hence strong Lyman- emission.(Partridge and Peebles 1967)

In principle, up to 6-7% of a young galaxy’s luminosity may emerge in the Lyman α line (for a Salpeter IMF).

High z LAEs not detected until 30 years later

There are now over a dozen research groups,

Over thousands candidate Lyman- galaxies,

Over hundreds spectroscopically confirmed

Up to a redshift of 6.96


The narrowband search method

The Narrowband Search Method

  • take images in both broad and narrow filters.

  • Emission line sources appear faint or absent in broad filter

  • The blue “veto filter” eliminates foreground emission line objects (demand < 2σ).


The narrowband search method1

The Narrowband Search Method

  • take images in both broad and narrow filters.

  • Emission line sources appear faint or absent in broad filter


Iye et al 2006

Iye et al. 2006


Lbg vs lae

LBG vs LAE ?


Origin of the lyman break

Origin of the Lyman break

Steidel & Hamilton 1992


Searching for the first galaxies

LBG in E-CDFS, R=22.8, z=3.38strong Ly emission (EW=60Å, SFRUV ≥350 M/yr) numerous chemical absorption features (6 hr IMACS exposure)

OI/SiII

SiII

SiII

FeII

CIV

SiIV

CII

MUSYC

Gawiser et al 2005

Ly 


Windows for narrowband surveys

Windows for Narrowband Surveys

Z=6.9


A large scale structure at z 6

A Large Scale Structure at z~6

Spatial distribution of z=5.75 galaxies in the CDF-S region. (Wang et al. 2005, ApJL)


Lyman surveys

Lyman- Surveys

A partial listing of Lyman- surveys since the first discovered field Ly- galaxies:

z < 4: Hu et al 1998, Kudritzki et al 2000, Stiavelli & Scarlatta 2003, Fynbo et al, Palunas et al,

4 < z < 5: LALA; Venemans et al 2002; Ouchi et al 2002;

5 < z < 6: LALA, Hu et al 2003; Ajiki et al 2003, 2003; Wang et al 2005; Ouchi et al 2005; Santos et al 2004; Martin & Sawicki 2004;

6 < z < 7: Hu et al 2002, Kodaira et al 2003, Taniguchi et al 2004, LALA (Rhoads et al 2004), Cuby et al 2003, Tran et al 2004, Santos et al 2004, Stern et al 2005.

7 < z < 9: Several surveys in progress, no confirmed detections yet.


Physical properties of ly galaxies

Physical Properties of Ly-α Galaxies

Large line to continuum ratios are common. (Malhotra & Rhoads 2002, ApJ Lett 565, L71):

Very hot stars?

Accretion power (i.e, Active Galactic Nuclei)?

Continuum preferentially suppressed by dust? (Neufeld 1991; Hansen & Oh 2005)


Lyman to x ray ratios

Lyman-α to X-ray ratios

Wang et al 2004, ApJ Letters 608, L21

Individual Lyman-α emitters are consistent with some but not all Type-II QSOs, and most are consistent with Seyfert IIs.

The composite Ly-α to X-ray ratio strongly rules out a large fraction of AGN in the Ly-α sample.


Composite ly galaxy spectrum

Composite Ly-α Galaxy Spectrum

Optical spectra show no sign of C IV or HeII lines.

These would be expected for AGN.

(Dawson et al 2004, ApJ 617, 707)

AGN fraction < 10%


The role of dust reduce the line ew

The role of dust: reduce the line EW

Ly photons

Continuum photons

Ly photons take longer path to escape, thus are more likely to be absorbed by smoothly distributed dust.


The role of dust enhance the line ew

The role of dust: enhance the line EW

Ly photons can be scattered off at the surface of cold dust clumps, thus could avoid being absorbed by dust grains, while the continuum could be severely attenuated.

Ly photons

UV photons

Hansen & Oh 2006


A brief history of the universe

A Brief History of the Universe

Big Bang

  • Last scattering: z=1089, t=379,000 yr

  • Today: z=0, t=13.7 Gyr

  • Reionization: z=6-20, t=0.2-1 Gyr

  • First galaxies: ?

Last Scattering

Dark Ages

First Galaxies

Reionization

Galaxies, Clusters, etc.

G. Djorgovski


Reionization a phase transition

Reionization: a phase transition.

  • The detection of Gunn-Peterson trough(s) in z > 6 quasars show neutral IGM at z~6. (Becker et al. 2001, Fan et al. 2002.)

  • This implies a qualitative change: enough photons existed after z=6 to ionize the IGM, but not before.


Comparing the ly and gunn peterson tests

Comparing the Ly- and Gunn-Peterson Tests


Charting reionization

Charting Reionization

There is no contradiction between the GP effect at z=6.2 and the Ly α at z=6.5.

Current evidence: Combine the Lyman α and Gunn-Peterson tests so far to study the evolution of the mass averaged neutral fraction, x:


Madau plot

Madau Plot


Ages and masses

Ages and Masses

  • We found the best-fit ages and masses for different categories of Lyman alpha galaxies:


How does this compare

How does this compare?

  • Other galaxies at similar redshift have masses ~ 109-10 solar masses.

    • These are consistent with our lowest line strength objects, which are also the brightest, and thus easier to detect in a normal survey.

  • The higher line strength objects are much fainter, which is why we only found them when we looked for the emission line.

    • Fainter usually means smaller, and we see this in their lower mass.

  • Milky Way ~ 1011 solar masses; ~ 10 billion years old.


  • Extension to redshifts z 7

    Extension to redshifts z > 7


    Z band dropout behind cluster

    Z-Band Dropout behind cluster

    H

    NB 1.06

    Z

    J

    Credit: Wei Zheng


    Blank sky search for lyman alpha lines

    Blank sky search for Lyman alpha lines


    Wait for jwst

    Wait for JWST?


    Thank you

    Thank you!


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