Totalitarianism
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Totalitarianism. Totalitarian States = 1 . Nazi Germany 2 . Stalinist Russia . Aspects of Totalitarian regimes. Extended the functions and power of the state Active loyalty and commitment of the citizens Modern mass propaganda and modern communications - conquer hearts and minds

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Totalitarianism

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Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism

Totalitarian States =

1. Nazi Germany

2. Stalinist Russia


Aspects of totalitarian regimes

Aspects of Totalitarian regimes

  • Extended the functions and power of the state

  • Active loyalty and commitment of the citizens

  • Modern mass propaganda and modern communications - conquer hearts and minds

  • Economic control

  • Political control

  • Social control

  • Intellectual control

  • Cultural control

  • Single leader or party

  • Rejection of liberalism - no constitutions, no limited govt, no civil liberties, no voting

  • Focus on the “will of the people” - which the leader or party determined

  • Transcended traditional political labels = it was both extreme left and extreme right


Totalitarianism

Italy in 1919 -

1. Poor performance in WW I

2. Felt they were cheated at the Paris Peace Conference

3. Inflation and unemployment

4. Discontented veterans

5. Weak and ineffective government

6. Fear of communism and Bolshevik style revolution


Benito mussolini

Benito Mussolini

  • Fails as a school teacher

  • Becomes a socialist and editor of a socialist newspaper

  • Supports Italian entry into WW I - becomes a nationalist - expelled from the socialist party

  • In 1919 forms a new political party called the Fascio di Combittimento = the League of Combat

  • Fasces = axe and bundle of rods/sticks that was the ancient Roman symbol of the power of the state

  • Fascism = the political party and ideology developed by Mussolini


The rise of mussolini and the fascists

The rise of Mussolini and the Fascists

1. Growing political power of the socialists

2. Fear that Italy might have a communist revolution

3. Strikes, class conflict and violence rip through Italy

4. Business and middle class begin supporting Mussolini - protection from revolution

5. Mussolini’s beliefs = anti-communism/anti-strike activity/nationalism

6. Fascists form armed groups called the SQUADRISTI- attack socialist offices and newspaper

7. Alliance between the liberals and the Fascists

8. The March on Rome - Oct. 1922 = Mussolini plans to march to Rome and seize power

9. The government caves in before the march takes place and the King names Mussolini as Prime Minister


Totalitarianism

  • The Black Shirts =

    Mussolini’s followers

  • 1924 national elections - the Fascists win 65% of the vote

  • 1924 the Fascists assassinate the socialist leader GiacomoMatteotti - political crisis and Mussolini almost loses power

  • 1925 Mussolini begins the process of establishing a full dictatorship


By 1926 mussolini had

By 1926 Mussolini had

1. Abolished freedom of the press

2. Rigged elections

3. Government ruled by decree

4. Political opponents were arrested

5. Labor unions disbanded

6. Schools were controlled by the fascists

7. Italy had become a one-party dictatorship


Totalitarianism

“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state!”

Mussolini = he and his party were the state


Totalitarianism

  • Mussolini tried to create a totalitarian state =

  • Police/secret police - repression and intimidation

  • Propaganda

  • Control of education and brain washing of youth

  • Creation of numerous fascists organizations

  • But he never was able to accomplish it

  • The army remained independent

  • The monarchy remained independent

  • The church - The Lateran Accords 1929 = recognized the Vatican as an independent state and the in return urged people to support the Fascist regime of Mussolini


Der spielvogel pp 746 749

DER SPIELVOGEL pp. 746-749

  • By 1939 what were the only major countries that were liberal democracies?

  • What 2 countries were the best examples of TOTALITARIAN regimes?

  • What 5 aspects of life did totalitarian governments attempt to control?

  • What were 3 elements of the modern totalitarian state?

  • Was totalitarianism extreme left wing radicalism or extreme right wing conservatism?

  • What were 3 major problems for Italy after WWI?

  • What was MUSSOLINI’s new political movement called?

  • What 4 things did Mussolini realize would help him obtain control over Italy?

  • Who were the SQUADRISTI?

  • Fear of what 3 things caused the middle classes to support the FASCISTS?

  • What happened as a result of the threatened “march on Rome” in October 1922?

  • What happened to MATTEOTTI?

  • What was outlawed in Italy in 1926?

  • What was the OVRA?

  • Define – IL DUCE

  • What were 2 methods used by the Fascists to control people’s thinking?

  • What was the Fascist education policy?

  • What was the Fascist slogan for women?

  • Why did Mussolini fail to achieve the same degree of totalitarian control as Hitler and Stalin?

  • What were the LATERAN ACCORDS 1929?


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