Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue
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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue. Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue Goals and Safety Considerations Hazards Tools and Resources Search Operations Rescue Operations Size-Up. Search and Rescue. Goals and Safety Considerations. Search and Rescue Defined.

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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue

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Unit 5 light search rescue

Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

  • Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue

  • Goals and Safety Considerations

  • Hazards

  • Tools and Resources

  • Search Operations

  • Rescue Operations

  • Size-Up


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

Search and Rescue Defined

A systematic approach for locating, rescuing (extricating), and providing initial medical treatment to victims trapped.


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

Safety

  • Stay aware of your surroundings

  • Assume all downed wires are live

  • Stay coordinated and in communication with your team

  • Do not exceed your capabilities or training

  • Stay hydrated-take breaks

  • Watch for fatigue in yourself and your crew


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

LCES

  • Lookout or safety person

  • Communication

  • Escape routes

  • Safety zones


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Hazards

Scene Hazards

  • Above Ground:

    • Electrical wires

    • Walls/cornices

    • Unreinforced chimneys

  • Ground Level:

    • Glass and debris

  • Below Grade:

    • Earth

    • Water

    • Hazardous Materials/sewage

    • Manmade structures

    • Propane


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Hazards

Damage Classification

  • Study the outward signs!!

  • Light Damage

    • Superficial to exterior, mostly interior

  • Moderate Damage

    • More apparent – cracking but no lean

  • Heavy Damage

    • Partial/total collapse


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Hazards

Light, medium, or heavy???


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Hazards

Signs of Structural Instability

  • Uneven windows

  • Cracked foundation and/or walls

  • Distinct lack of plumbness

  • Wood frames do well in earthquakes, but…


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Basic Tools Should Include

  • PPE

  • Go – bag

  • Duct tape

  • Extinguisher

  • Axe

  • Prying and various carpentry tools


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Forcing Doors and Windows

  • Feel doors for heat

  • Break a glass panel in a door, reach in, unlock…much easier

  • Pound directly on lock with sledge

  • Windows:

    • See if they’re open

    • Tools

    • Break

    • Glass types

  • Announce yourself

  • Try before you pry!


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Points of Entry

  • Front door

    • Open?

    • Keys?

  • Any window or glass door

  • Upper floor deck

  • Garage door…caution!


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Breaking Glass

  • Stand to one side

  • Keep hands above tool’s contact point

  • Start at top of window and work down

  • Clear frame of all glass and debris

*Different glass


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Garage Doors

  • Same techniques as windows

  • Jam the door OPEN when going inside garage


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Ladder Safety

  • Ten feet from wires

  • Secure ladder

  • Correct ladder angle


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Box Cribbing

*Improvised resources?


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Mechanical Advantage and Lifting

  • Levers

  • Jacks

  • Cribbing

  • Wedges and Shims


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Lifting Heavy Objects

  • See if you can lift the item without mechanical advantage

  • Use proper body mechanics

BEND KNEES AND SQUAT

KEEP BACK STRAIGHT

KEEP LOAD NEXT TO BODY

PUSH UP WITH LEGS


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Lifting Procedure

  • Have all materials ready

  • Everyone aware of plan including victim

  • Crib to object being lifted

  • Lift height of 1 piece of cribbing

  • Slide cribbing under object

  • Set object down on cribbing

  • Keep hands out from underneath object

Repeat this process until victim can be removed


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Know Your Limits

  • Physical Condition

  • Mental Condition

DON’T OVEREXTEND YOURSELF

DON’T BECOME A VICTIM


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Search and Rescue Survival Rates

Time of Rescue

30 Minutes

1 Day

2 Days

3 Days

4 Days

5 Days

Survival Rate

99.3%

81.0%

33.7%

36.7%

19.0%

7.4%


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Search Overview

  • Two teams of two

  • Exterior controls scene outside

  • Interior completes the search

  • Both should have utility shutoff tools, documentation items, and PPE


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Types of Collapses and Voids

  • Voids form due to collapse

  • Primary concern is your safety

  • Four basic collapses in order of least to most hazardous:

    • Lean-to

    • V-shape

    • Pancake

    • Cantilever


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

V-Shape Collapse


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Pancake Collapse


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Cantilever Collapse (after support)


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Some Search Tips

  • Preplan the search

  • Be systematic – follow the same direction all the way around rooms

  • Have prearranged signal system with exterior team

  • Always stay in pairs!

  • Don’t become a victim! Play it safe and get out if you hear creaking, sense movement, or smell gas!


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Before Entering Building

  • Mark the outside of the building a diagonal line with paint or pen

  • Write the time and date

  • Write the CERT team name


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

After Exiting Building

  • Mark the outside of the building another diagonal line forming an “X”

  • Write the time and date the search team left structure

  • Write hazards found and conditions found


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Building Marking Sample


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

  • Starts once victim is located

  • Size-up

  • Assess needed resources

  • Have a good plan and make sure all understand it!

  • Plan escape routes

  • Determine medical needs

  • Keep it simple


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

General Rules

  • Always form a plan everyone understands

  • Designate a team leader and a safety officer

  • Full PPE

  • Have equipment ready for your assigned task

  • Always crib up to your object

  • Be ready to adapt if your plan is not working


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Size-Up

Size-Up

Gather facts.

Assess and communicate damage.

Assess your resources.

Establish priorities.

Develop a rescue plan.

Take action.

Evaluate your progress.


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Review

Search and Rescue Review

  • Size-up your scene and know your situation.

  • Be safe!

  • Greatest good.

  • Establish a search process.

  • Rescue victims and treat as needed.

  • Teamwork and communications.


Unit 5 light search rescue

Search and Rescue

Size-up

Size-up Scenario


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