Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue
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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue. Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue Goals and Safety Considerations Hazards Tools and Resources Search Operations Rescue Operations Size-Up. Search and Rescue. Goals and Safety Considerations. Search and Rescue Defined.

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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue

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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue


  • Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue

  • Goals and Safety Considerations

  • Hazards

  • Tools and Resources

  • Search Operations

  • Rescue Operations

  • Size-Up


Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

Search and Rescue Defined

A systematic approach for locating, rescuing (extricating), and providing initial medical treatment to victims trapped.


Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

Safety

  • Stay aware of your surroundings

  • Assume all downed wires are live

  • Stay coordinated and in communication with your team

  • Do not exceed your capabilities or training

  • Stay hydrated-take breaks

  • Watch for fatigue in yourself and your crew


Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

LCES

  • Lookout or safety person

  • Communication

  • Escape routes

  • Safety zones


Search and Rescue

Hazards

Scene Hazards

  • Above Ground:

    • Electrical wires

    • Walls/cornices

    • Unreinforced chimneys

  • Ground Level:

    • Glass and debris

  • Below Grade:

    • Earth

    • Water

    • Hazardous Materials/sewage

    • Manmade structures

    • Propane


Search and Rescue

Hazards

Damage Classification

  • Study the outward signs!!

  • Light Damage

    • Superficial to exterior, mostly interior

  • Moderate Damage

    • More apparent – cracking but no lean

  • Heavy Damage

    • Partial/total collapse


Search and Rescue

Hazards

Light, medium, or heavy???


Search and Rescue

Hazards

Signs of Structural Instability

  • Uneven windows

  • Cracked foundation and/or walls

  • Distinct lack of plumbness

  • Wood frames do well in earthquakes, but…


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Basic Tools Should Include

  • PPE

  • Go – bag

  • Duct tape

  • Extinguisher

  • Axe

  • Prying and various carpentry tools


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Forcing Doors and Windows

  • Feel doors for heat

  • Break a glass panel in a door, reach in, unlock…much easier

  • Pound directly on lock with sledge

  • Windows:

    • See if they’re open

    • Tools

    • Break

    • Glass types

  • Announce yourself

  • Try before you pry!


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Points of Entry

  • Front door

    • Open?

    • Keys?

  • Any window or glass door

  • Upper floor deck

  • Garage door…caution!


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Breaking Glass

  • Stand to one side

  • Keep hands above tool’s contact point

  • Start at top of window and work down

  • Clear frame of all glass and debris

*Different glass


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Garage Doors

  • Same techniques as windows

  • Jam the door OPEN when going inside garage


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Ladder Safety

  • Ten feet from wires

  • Secure ladder

  • Correct ladder angle


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Box Cribbing

*Improvised resources?


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Mechanical Advantage and Lifting

  • Levers

  • Jacks

  • Cribbing

  • Wedges and Shims


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Lifting Heavy Objects

  • See if you can lift the item without mechanical advantage

  • Use proper body mechanics

BEND KNEES AND SQUAT

KEEP BACK STRAIGHT

KEEP LOAD NEXT TO BODY

PUSH UP WITH LEGS


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Lifting Procedure

  • Have all materials ready

  • Everyone aware of plan including victim

  • Crib to object being lifted

  • Lift height of 1 piece of cribbing

  • Slide cribbing under object

  • Set object down on cribbing

  • Keep hands out from underneath object

Repeat this process until victim can be removed


Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Know Your Limits

  • Physical Condition

  • Mental Condition

DON’T OVEREXTEND YOURSELF

DON’T BECOME A VICTIM


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Search and Rescue Survival Rates

Time of Rescue

30 Minutes

1 Day

2 Days

3 Days

4 Days

5 Days

Survival Rate

99.3%

81.0%

33.7%

36.7%

19.0%

7.4%


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Search Overview

  • Two teams of two

  • Exterior controls scene outside

  • Interior completes the search

  • Both should have utility shutoff tools, documentation items, and PPE


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Types of Collapses and Voids

  • Voids form due to collapse

  • Primary concern is your safety

  • Four basic collapses in order of least to most hazardous:

    • Lean-to

    • V-shape

    • Pancake

    • Cantilever


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

V-Shape Collapse


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Pancake Collapse


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Cantilever Collapse (after support)


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Some Search Tips

  • Preplan the search

  • Be systematic – follow the same direction all the way around rooms

  • Have prearranged signal system with exterior team

  • Always stay in pairs!

  • Don’t become a victim! Play it safe and get out if you hear creaking, sense movement, or smell gas!


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Before Entering Building

  • Mark the outside of the building a diagonal line with paint or pen

  • Write the time and date

  • Write the CERT team name


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

After Exiting Building

  • Mark the outside of the building another diagonal line forming an “X”

  • Write the time and date the search team left structure

  • Write hazards found and conditions found


Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Building Marking Sample


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

  • Starts once victim is located

  • Size-up

  • Assess needed resources

  • Have a good plan and make sure all understand it!

  • Plan escape routes

  • Determine medical needs

  • Keep it simple


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue


Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

General Rules

  • Always form a plan everyone understands

  • Designate a team leader and a safety officer

  • Full PPE

  • Have equipment ready for your assigned task

  • Always crib up to your object

  • Be ready to adapt if your plan is not working


Search and Rescue

Size-Up

Size-Up

Gather facts.

Assess and communicate damage.

Assess your resources.

Establish priorities.

Develop a rescue plan.

Take action.

Evaluate your progress.


Search and Rescue

Review

Search and Rescue Review

  • Size-up your scene and know your situation.

  • Be safe!

  • Greatest good.

  • Establish a search process.

  • Rescue victims and treat as needed.

  • Teamwork and communications.


Search and Rescue

Size-up

Size-up Scenario


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