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Big Idea 3. Genetics and Information Transfer. Essential Questions. How are traits passed from one generation to the next? How do eukaryotic cells store, retrieve, and transmit genetic information? How does genotype affect phenotype? How are genotype and human disorder related?

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Big idea 3

Big Idea 3

Genetics and Information Transfer


Essential questions

Essential Questions

  • How are traits passed from one generation to the next?

  • How do eukaryotic cells store, retrieve, and transmit genetic information?

  • How does genotype affect phenotype?

  • How are genotype and human disorder related?

  • How does gene expression control the cell and determine its metabolism?

  • What are the current trends in genetic engineering techniques that guide manipulation of genetic material?

  • What social and ethical issues are raised by advances in genetic engineering?


Supplemental reading

Supplemental Reading

  • Over this unit, we will be reading “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks” by Rebecca Skloot

    • I have asked teachers if they have copies of this book, but you can download it for Kindle and it is only about $10

  • We will also watch the movie “Gataca”, so if you have a copy of it, please let me know.


Day 1

Day 1

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 12, 13, 21

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Mitosis

    • Meiosis


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle

  • Describe events that occur in the cell cycle

  • Construct an explanation how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis or meiosis

  • Represent the connection between meiosis and increased genetic diversity necessary for evolution


Activity 1

Activity 1

  • Complete the “Mitosis sequencing” handout

  • Put the phases in the correct order

  • Time: 10 minutes


Activity 2

Activity 2

  • Complete “Modeling Mitosis” and “Modeling Meiosis” using the plastic chromosomes

  • Write down what is happening in each phase

  • Time: 30 minutes


Activity 3

Activity 3

  • Create a Venn diagram that compares the process of eukaryotes passing heritable information to next generations of cells by mitosis and meiosis

  • Explain connections between mitosis and meiosis and increased genetic diversity

  • Evaluate and explain the differences and similarities between mitosis and meiosis

  • Time: 20 minutes


Activity 4

Activity 4

  • Explain the role of regulators in the cell cycle

  • What phases in the cell cycle are regulators found?

  • What happens if these regulators are defective?

  • Time: 20 minutes


Closing activity

Closing activity

  • Quiz!

  • Time: 10 minutes


Day 2

Day 2

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 12, 13, 21

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Mitosis

    • Meiosis


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • Define cancer and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.

  • Explain that cancers result from mutations in genes that control the cell cycle.

  • Understand how cancerous cells move around the body.

  • Know the difference between tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, and understand how these

  • genes contribute to cancer formation.


Activity 11

Activity 1

  • We will go through the activity “But I’m too Young!”

  • Time: 70 minutes


Closing activity1

Closing Activity

  • Quiz!

  • What are three important things that you learned from this case study?

  • How is this case study applicable to your life? What things can you do to decrease the risk of something like this happening to you?

  • Time: 10 minutes


Day 3

Day 3

  • Required Readings:

    • Lab #7: Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Mitosis and Meiosis Lab


Learning objectives2

Learning Objectives

  • Make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle

  • Describe the events that occur in the cell cycle

  • Construct an explanation as to how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization

  • Represent the connection between meiosis and increased genetic diversity necessary for evolution

  • Evaluate evidence provided by data sets to support the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another generation through mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization

  • Connect the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring


Pre lab questions

Pre-lab Questions

  • What is the purpose of cell division?

  • What are the outcomes of mitosis and meiosis?

  • How does meiosis increase the genetic diversity in a population?

  • How many cells are in your body? How were those cells produced from a single cell (zygote)?

  • What are some advantages of asexual reproduction in plants?

  • What is the importance of DNA replication prior to cell division?

  • How is the cell cycle controlled? What would happen if the control were defective?


Activity 1 mitosis

Activity 1: Mitosis

  • How does the genetic information in a cell from your toe compare to the genetic information in a cell from your arm?

  • What other purposes besides growth would require cell division? How do cells divide?

  • Use the clay provided to demonstrate the different stages in mitosis and what is happening in each stage


Mitosis in onion root tips

Mitosis in Onion Root Tips

  • We will use the following website to conduct our investigation on mitosis:

    • http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/activities/cell_cycle/cell_cycle.html

  • Complete Table 1 for the onion cells you observe and collect the other groups’ data (put those in “Tip 2” and “Tip 3”)

  • Complete steps 1-4 and 1-2 on S89


Review questions

Review Questions

  • What was the importance of collecting the class data?

  • Was there a significant difference between the groups?

  • Does an increased number of cells in mitosis mean that these cells are dividing faster than the cells in the roots with a lower number of cells in mitosis?

  • How else could you determine the rate of mitosis in root tips?


Activity 2 loss of cell cycle control

Activity 2: Loss of Cell Cycle Control

  • Pre-lab Questions:

    • How are normal cells and cancer cells different from each other

    • What are the main causes of cancer?

    • How can we explain the fact that there are so many different cancers, even in the same types of cells or tissues?

    • How is the cell cycle controlled in normal cells?

    • What goes wrong during the cell cycle in cancer cells?

    • What makes some genes related to increased cancer risk?

    • Do you think that the chromosomes might be different between normal and cancer cells?


Activity 2 cont d

Activity 2 (Cont’d)

  • Look up pictures of cancer cells vs. normal cells. Include these in your report

  • Compare the chromosomes from a normal individual and a HeLa cell

    • Discuss their appearance

    • Did the results match your hypothesis (last question from previous slide)?

    • What information do you need to validate your conclusion?

    • In normal cells, mitosis is blocked if there is DNA damage

    • What would happen if cells with mutated DNA replicated?

    • How does p53 play a role in the cell cycle? What happens if it is damaged?


Activity 3 meiosis

Activity 3: Meiosis

  • Pre-lab questions:

    • How is meiosis important to a sexually reproducing organism?

    • What would happen if eggs and sperm were produced by mitosis instead of meiosis?

    • How can crossing over between homologous chromosomes be detected?

    • How do meiosis and fertilization affect genetic diversity and evolution?

    • How do sexually reproducing organisms produce gametes from diploid cells?

    • How does the process increase gamete diversity?

    • What are the outcomes from independent assortment and crossing over?

    • How does the distance between two genes or a gen and a centromere affect crossing over frequencies?


Activity 3 cont d

Activity 3 (Cont’d)

  • Sordaria fimicola is a fungus

  • You will measure crossover frequencies and genetic outcomes from Sordaria cards and examine asci (formation of eight haploid ascospores contained within a sac called an ascus (plural, asci)) produced by crossing wild type (black) with tan parents

  • Each ascus contains 8 spores

  • Parent type has four tan and four black spores in a row (4:4)

  • Recombinant asci will not have this pattern (2:2:2:2, 2:4:2)


Activity 3 cont d1

Activity 3 (cont’d)

  • Take a card and complete table 3 on page S95


Write up

Write Up

  • CERR Model

  • Claim – Discuss what mitosis and meiosis are, what results from them, when they are used and what controls them

  • Evidence – 2 tables plus chi-square calculations

  • Reasoning – Discuss why you saw what you saw. There are some great leading questions in the student lab manual given to you, as well as the pre-lab questions that you can refer back to

  • Rebuttal – Why do meiosis and mitosis not occur in a different way? Why does a cell not have zero checkpoints? Why do sexually reproducing organisms not all look exactly alike? Etc.


Day 4 60 minutes

Day 4 (60 minutes)

  • Test (Chapter 12, 13, investigation 6)


Day 5

Day 5

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 14, 15

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Mendelian Genetics

    • Genotypes and Phenotypes

    • Chromosomal Genetics

    • Genetics

    • Chi-Square Test


Learning objectives3

Learning Objectives

  • Construct a representation that connects the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring

  • Apply mathematical routines to determine Mendelian patterns of inheritance provided by data sets

  • Explain deviations from Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits

  • Explain how the inheritance patterns of many trains cannot be accounted for by Mendelian genetics


Activity 12

Activity 1

  • Watch the video “Basics of Genetics: Understanding Inheritance” and complete the questions that go along with it

  • Time: 40 minutes


Activity 21

Activity 2

  • We cannot conduct the experiment with Wisconsin Fast Plants, but suppose you are given the following data for different traits. Complete the handout given to you for expected values and complete the chi-square calculations

  • This is for a monohybrid cross for 2 different traits with 100 plants

  • Predict the expected results for a dihybrid cross between the 2 traits. You have 100 plants

  • Time: 20 minutes


Data table

Data Table


Activity 31

Activity 3

  • We will do the virtual fly lab (time permitting) to see the difference between sex-linked and autosomal inheritance

  • You should have a username and password

  • http://www.sciencecourseware.org/vcise/drosophila/

  • Complete the tables and questions as you go along


Day 6

Day 6

  • Bozeman videos:

    • Chromosomal Genetics

    • Blood Types

    • X-inactivation

    • Signal Transmission and Gene Expression

    • Gene Regulation


Learning objectives4

Learning Objectives

  • Apply mathematical routines to determine Mendelian patterns of inheritance provided by data sets

  • Explain deviations from Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits

  • Explain how the inheritance patterns of many traits cannot be accounted for by Mendelian genetics

  • Use evidence to justify a claim that a variety of phenotypic responses to a single environmental factor can result from different genotypes within the population


Activity 13

Activity 1

  • Watch the video “Basics of Genetics: The Human Genome” and answer the questions that go along with it.

  • Time: 35 minutes


Activity 2 punnett squares

Activity 2: Punnett Squares

  • Watch the video and complete the examples for Punnett Squares

  • If you finish, you can work on your fly lab

  • Fly lab is due October 22


Day 7

Day 7

  • Required Readings:

    • None


Learning objectives5

Learning Objectives

  • Pose questions about the ethical, social, or medical issues surrounding human genetic disorders

  • Construct a representation that connects the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring


Activity 1 research for the lesson discussion will be next day

Activity 1 – Research for the lesson, discussion will be next day

  • Choose one of the following disorders to research, or you may choose one of your own:

    • Sickle-cell anemia

    • Tay-Sachs disease

    • Colour blindness

    • Huntington’s disease

    • Down Syndrome

    • Kleinfelters

    • ALD (Lorenzo’s Oil)

  • Gather information and discuss the following points with the class with regards to your disorder:

    • Ethical, social, and medical issues that surround your disorder

  • Write a 2-3 page paper about your disorder and the issues you discussed in class (due October 30)

  • Use the “Human Genome” research site for data


Day 8 60 minutes

Day 8 (60 minutes)

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 16, 17

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • DNA and RNA part 1 and 2

    • Mutations


Learning objectives6

Learning Objectives

  • Construct scientific explanations that use the structures and mechanisms of DNA and RNA to support the claim that DNA and, in some cases, RNA are the primary sources of heritable information

  • Describe representations and models illustrating how genetic information is translated into polypeptides


Activity 14

Activity 1

  • Complete the “See your DNA” lab by extracting DNA from your cheek cells

  • Complete the sheets to go along with it

  • Time: 45 minutes


Activity 22

Activity 2

  • Class discussion:

    • How have advances in biotechnology been used in real-life applications?

    • What are the ethical issues that surround DNA information?

  • Time: 15 minutes

  • Test next lesson


Day 9

Day 9

  • Test

    • Chapters 14, 15


Day 10

Day 10

  • Required Readings

    • Chapter 16, 17

  • Bozeman Videos

    • DNA and RNA part 1 and 2

    • Mutations


Learning objectives7

Learning Objectives

  • Justify the selection of data rom historical investigations that support the claim that DNA is the source of heritable information

  • Construct scientific explanations that use the structures and mechanisms of DNA and RNA to support the claim that DNA and, in some cases, RNA are the primary sources of heritable information

  • Describe representations and models illustrating how genetic information is translated into polypeptides

  • Describe representations and models illustrating how genetic information is translated into polypeptides

  • Create visual representations to illustrate how changes in DNA nucleotide sequences can result in a change in the polypeptide produced


Activity 15

Activity 1

  • Create a timeline that shows the important milestones in the identification of DNA as genetic material

    • Griffith, Hershey, Chase, Watson & Crick should appear in the timeline

  • Include what you think is still to come in advances in DNA use and biotechnology according to what is still unanswered about DNA

  • Time: 15 minutes


Activity 23

Activity 2

  • How is DNA the heritable source of genetic information?

  • Create a diagram that shows what DNA, where it is, and how it is replicated and transferred to offspring

  • Think: Transcription – what happens in this stage?

  • I have some velcro models that you can use as well

  • Time: 25 minutes


Activity 32

Activity 3

  • Play the Messenger RNA game

  • As you play, think about how proteins are made during the translation process.

  • What is a mutation and how does it happen?

  • How can a mutation affect the gene that is meant to be expressed?


Activity 41

Activity 4

  • DNA Workshop

  • Go to the library to the site:

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/dna/

  • Justify the role of DNA replication being the starting point for protein synthesis

  • Manipulate the online models to create representations of DNA replication, transcription and translation


Day 11

Day 11

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Investigation 9

  • Required Readings:

    • Investigation 9: Biotechnology: Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA


Day 12

Day 12

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 18, 19

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Viruses

    • Viral Replication


Day 13

Day 13

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 18, 19

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Viruses

    • Viral Replication


Day 14 60 minutes

Day 14 (60 minutes)

  • Test

    • Chapter16, 17, 18, 19


Day 15

Day 15

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 20, 21

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Molecular Biology


Day 16

Day 16

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 20, 21


Day 17

Day 17

  • Required Readings:

    • Chapter 18

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Signal Transmission and Gene Expression

    • Gene Regulation

    • Genotype Expression


Activity 16

Activity 1

  • Watch the video “Ghost in Your Genes”

  • Write down questions you have as you watch the video

  • Write down interesting things that you learn as you watch the video

  • Time: 65 minutes


Day 18

Day 18

  • Required Readings:

    • Investigation 8: Biotechnology: Bacterial Transformation

  • Bozeman Videos:

    • Investigation 8


Day 19 60 minutes

Day 19 (60 minutes)

  • Gattaca


Day 20

Day 20

  • Gattaca (Cont’d)


Day 21

Day 21

  • Required Readings:

    • The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks


Day 22

Day 22

  • Review for Final Exam (Chapters 12-21)


Exam december 13

Exam: December 13

  • Cumulative exam for Big Idea 2 and Big Idea 3

  • 90 minutes

  • Section 1: Multiple Choice

  • Section 2: Free Response Questions


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