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Civil Rights Movement and Leaders. Theory of Civil Disobedience. Refusing to obey unjust laws by following these rules: The disobedience must be public, not secret, because the purpose of the disobedience is to show the law is unjust

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Theory of civil disobedience
Theory of Civil Disobedience

  • Refusing to obey unjust laws by following these rules:

    • The disobedience must be public, not secret, because the purpose of the disobedience is to show the law is unjust

    • Even though the law is unjust, the person who practices civil disobedience must accept the penalty for disobeying it

Rosa parks
Rosa Parks

  • On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks, age 42, refused to obey the bus driver order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger

  • She was arrested and this helped lead to the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • NAACP planned test to challenge practice of forcing African Americans citizens to ride on back of bus

  • Martin Luther King Jr. chosen as spokesman

  • December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956


Martin luther king
Martin Luther King

  • Born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1929

  • Lived in middle-class family

  • Attended Morehouse College

    • Studied theology

    • Particularly believed in Ghandi’s nonviolent resistance – expose injustice and force it to end

Mlk s supporters
MLK’s Supporters

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott was what made King famous

  • 1957 – brought together 100 black ministers to find SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Committee

    • Southern black church leaders of the Civil Rights Movement

Little rock 9
Little Rock 9

  • September 1957 – schools order to begin desegregation

  • Gov. Faubus – campaigning for reelection – defied court order

    • National Guard troops sent to Central High

  • Faubus withdrew the troops – students left to white mob

    • September 24th – Arkansas National Guard sent in under federal control – 101st Airborne protected students

Nonviolent movement sit ins
Nonviolent Movement: Sit-Ins

  • February 1960 – 4 black students sat down at white only lunch counter at Woolworths

  • Sit in leads to the start of an economic boycott

  • Within 18 months – 70,000 people participated in sit-ins – 3,000 arrested

  • New form of direct action protest – dignified and powerful

March on washington
March on Washington

  • August 28, 1963 – 250,000 people gathered

  • MLK gives “I Have a Dream” speech

I have a dream
“I Have a Dream”


16 th st baptist chucrch bombing
16th St Baptist Chucrch Bombing

  • September 15, 1963


Assassination of mlk jr
Assassination of MLK Jr.

  • April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN by James Earl Ray at the Loraine Motel


Malcom x
Malcom X

  • Born in 1925 – Malcolm Little

    • preacher father – murdered by whites

    • Drifts into life of crime – sent to jail – finds Nation of Islam

  • Nation of Islam – create a self-reliant, highly disciplined, separate “nation” for blacks

    • Used “X” to symbolize loss of slave name

  • Time for nonviolence had passed

  • Separated himself from Nation of Islam after pilgrimage to Mecca – break sets of struggle – leads to assassination in February 1965

Black power
Black Power

  • Argued for right to use violence for self-defense

  • African American mobilization for control of economic and political power

  • Separation of societies

  • Black Panthers established – citizen patrols because African Americans could not trust white police force

Civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

Voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965

  • August 1965 – LBJ signs law

    • Authorizes federal supervision of voting registration processes

    • Outlawed literacy and other discriminatory tests

Thurgood marshall
Thurgood Marshall

  • 1st African American to serve on the US Supreme Court

  • Lawyer that argued in favor of Brown v Board of Education

Affirmative action
Affirmative Action

  • Affirmative action is action taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded

Bakke v the regents of california
Bakke v the Regents of California

  • Bakke was refused admission to medical school even though he scored higher on admissions tests than some minority applicants

  • Supreme Court ruled that his 14th amendment rights were violated

Cesar chavez
Cesar Chavez

  • Mexican American civil rights leader

  • Organized grape farmers to strike and led to better conditions for migrant farmers

Watergate scandal
Watergate Scandal

  • 5 burglars were caught breaking into the Democratic Headquarters in the Watergate hotel in D.C. in 1972

  • Tape recording linked Nixon to the crime

  • Facing impeachment, he became the only president to resign in August 1974