Perennial weeds anaerobic soil disinfection mechanical methods
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Perennial weeds: anaerobic soil disinfection & mechanical methods. Hilfred Huiting, Piet Bleeker & Marleen Riemens EWRS workshop Physical & Cultural Weed Control – Samsun, March 2011. Perennial weeds: setting the scene. Difficult to control:

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Perennial weeds: anaerobic soil disinfection & mechanical methods

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Perennial weeds: anaerobic soil disinfection & mechanical methods

Hilfred Huiting, Piet Bleeker & Marleen Riemens

EWRS workshop Physical & Cultural Weed Control – Samsun, March 2011


Perennial weeds: setting the scene

  • Difficult to control:

    • Species intrinsically are very resilient → exhaust strategy

    • Perennial weed problems take a long breath to control

  • In organic farming:

    • No chemical options

    • Increasing labour cost

  • In conventional farming:

    • Increasing farming scale

      • Weed problems may stay unnoticed longer

      • Tendency towards ”easy” solutions may increase problems

    • Herbicide availability


Research on perennial weeds

  • Two field experiments, in Wageningen and Lelystad, integrating reasearch on:

    • Weed phenology

    • Chemical weed control strategies

    • Non-chemical weed control strategies


Materials & methods: weeds

Root pieces planted spring 2009

  • Cirsium arvense – creeping thistle

  • Rorippa sylvestris – creeping yellowcress

  • Sonchus arvensis – field sowthistle

  • Calystegia sepium – bindweed

  • Equisetum arvense – field horsetail

  • Tussilago farfara – coltsfoot

  • Elymus repens – couch grass

  • Rumex obtusifolius – bitter dock

  • Polygonum amphibium – water smartweed


Materials & methods: treatments

  • Mechanical weed control

    • Broadcast blade

      • Application at 5 cm depth; ”superficial”

      • Application at 15 cm depth; ”deep”

    • Rod weeder

      • Mounted behind rigid tine cultivator

      • Application at c. 6 cm depth

  • Anaerobic soil disinfection, 11 week period

    • Incorporation of weed biomass and covering

    • Incorporation of weed biomass and additional 40 ton/ha fresh grass and covering


Materials & methods: treatments

  • Mechanical weed control

    • Broadcast blade

      • Application at 5 cm depth; ”superficial”

      • Application at 15 cm depth; ”deep”

    • Rod weeder

      • Mounted behind rigid tine cultivator

      • Application at c. 6 cm depth

  • Anaerobic soil disinfection, 11 week period

    • Incorporation of weed biomass and covering

    • Incorporation of weed biomass and additional 40 ton/ha fresh grass and covering


Materials & methods: treatment schedule


Mechanical weed control – blade

Sandy soil

Marine loam soil


Mechanical weed control – rod weeder

Marine loam soil

Sandy soil


Results Sonchus avernsis


Results Polygonum amphibium


Results Tussilago farfara


Results Calystegia sepium


Results Cirsium arvense


Results Equisetum arvense


Results Elymus repens


Results Rorippa sylvestris


Results Rumex obtusifolius


Overview efficacy mechanical weed control

Efficacy:

  • -: insufficient

  • X: >85%

  • XX: >90%

  • XXX: >95%

  • XXXX: > 99%


Anaerobic soil disinfection

Without grass

With grass


Anaerobic soil disinfection: % soil covering


Discussion & conclusions

  • Rod weeder very effective after frequent passes

  • Broadcast blade effective as well, if used superficially and frequently

  • Anaerobic soil disinfection may be promissing

  • Results only after one season !!


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