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ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming. TCP/IP Protocol (cont’d). Preamble: Alternating 0’s and 1’s with last bit a l. Destination medium access control (MAC) address: Each receiver DL layer compares this to its own hardwired network interface card (NIC) address.

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Ece 4110 internetwork programming

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming

TCP/IP Protocol (cont’d)


Dix ethernet data frame format

Preamble: Alternating 0’s and 1’s with last bit a l.

Destination medium access control (MAC) address: Each receiver DL layer compares this to its own hardwired network interface card (NIC) address.

Normally a NIC knows its own address and the broadcast address.

Source MAC address: Sender’s NIC address.

Type: Type of data transporting. E.g.: Internet Protocol.

Cyclic Redundancy Check: Used for checking data integrity.

Gap: After the Ethernet Frame, a 12 Byte Interframe Gap must always follow.

Note: Receiver DL layer does not look at data.

Note:Data is in most network technologies called a “packet.”

Preamble

(8 Bytes)

Destination

MAC Address

(6 Bytes)

Source

MAC Address

(6 Bytes)

Type

(2 Bytes)

Data

CRC

(4 Bytes)

Gap

12 Bytes

DIX Ethernet Data Frame Format

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing concepts

Network Number (Address)

1

Router

Network

Routing Concepts

B

C

3

Computer

X

Computer

Y

4

2

9

A1

A2

A4

1

5

A

A3

D

6

8

E

7

Computer X on Network wants to send a message to Computer Y on Network .

F

1

5

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing concepts cont d

Destination MAC Address

Source

MAC address

IEEE 802.3

Frame

DATA

Preamble

Length

CRC

Destination

5 : Y

Source

1 : X

Other

Stuff

Data

Routing Concepts (cont’d)

  • Network address is software configurable.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing
Routing

  • Service

    • Connection-oriented

    • Connectionless

  • Delivery

    • Direct Delivery

    • Indirect delivery

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Connection oriented vs connectionless
Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless

  • In connection-oriented services, the network layer protocol first makes a connection.

  • In connectionless services, each packet is treated independently. So, there is no relationship between the packets.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Direct delivery
Direct Delivery

  • Source and the destination are on the same physical network.

  • Address mapping is between IP and physical address of the final destination.

  • Physical address of the destination is found via ARP.

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Indirect delivery
Indirect Delivery

  • Source and destination are on different networks.

  • Address mapping is between IP and physical address of the next hop.

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing methods
Routing Methods

  • Next-hop routing

  • Network-specific routing

  • Host-specific routing

  • Default routing

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Next hop routing
Next-Hop Routing

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Network specific routing
Network-Specific Routing

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Host specific routing
Host-Specific Routing

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Default routing
Default Routing

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Static vs dynamic routing
Static vs. Dynamic Routing

  • In static routing, routing table is constructed manually.

  • In dynamic routing, routing table is constructed automatically using protocols like RIP, OSPF, or BGP.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing table
Routing Table

  • Flags

    • U The router is up and running.

    • G The destination is a gateway (indirect delivery).

    • H Host-specific address.

    • D Added by redirection (by ICMP).

    • M Modified by redirection (by ICMP).

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing module
Routing Module

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing module cont d
Routing Module (cont’d)

  • Search for route in this order:

    • Direct delivery

    • Host-specific delivery

    • Network-specific delivery

    • Default delivery

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Routing module algorithm
Routing Module (algorithm)

  • For each entry in RT:

    • Apply the mask to destination address

    • If result of mask matches the destination field in the entry in RT, find next-hop address as follows:

      • If G flag is set

        • Use next-hop field in RT

      • Else

        • Use destination address in the packet (direct delivery)

      • Send packet to fragmentation module with the next-hop address

      • Stop

  • Else, send ICMP error message

  • Stop

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example topology
Example Topology

* From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall


Routing table for r1

MaskDestination Next HopInterface

255.0.0.0 111.0.0.0 - m0

255.255.255.224 193.14.5.160 - m2

255.255.255.224 193.14.5.192 - m1

255.255.255.255 194.17.21.16 111.20.18.14 m0

255.255.255.0 192.16.7.0 111.15.17.32 m0

255.255.255.0 194.17.21.0 111.20.18.14 m0

0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 111.30.31.18 m0

Routing Table for R1

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 1
Example 1

  • Router R1 receives 500 packets for destination 192.16.7.14; the algorithm applies the masks row by row to the destination address until a match (with the value in the second column) is found.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 1 solution
Example 1 (Solution)

  • Direct delivery

    192.16.7.14 & 255.0.0.0  192.0.0.0 no match

    192.16.7.14 & 255.255.255.224  192.16.7.0 no match

    192.16.7.14 & 255.255.255.224  192.16.7.0 no match

  • Host-specific

    192.16.7.14 & 255.255.255.255  192.16.7.14 no match

  • Network-specific

    192.16.7.14 & 255.255.255.0  192.16.7.0 match

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 2
Example 2

  • Router R1 receives 100 packets for destination 193.14.5.176; the algorithm applies the masks row by row to the destination address until a match is found.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 2 solution
Example 2 (Solution)

  • Direct delivery

    193.14.5.176 & 255.0.0.0  193.0.0.0 no match

    193.14.5.176 & 255.255.255.224  193.14.5.160 match

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 3
Example 3

  • Router R1 receives 20 packets for destination 200.34.12.34; the algorithm applies the masks row by row to the destination address until a match is found.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 3 solution
Example 3 (Solution)

  • Direct delivery

    200.34.12.34 & 255.0.0.0  200.0.0.0 no match

    200.34.12.34 & 255.255.255.224  200.34.12.32 no match

    200.34.12.34 & 255.255.255.224  200.34.12.32 no match

  • Host-specific

    200.34.12.34 & 255.255.255.255  200.34.12.34 no match

  • Network-specific

    200.34.12.34 & 255.255.255.0  200.34.12.0 no match

    200.34.12.34 & 255.255.255.0  200.34.12.0 no match

  • Default

    200.34.12.34 & 0.0.0.0  0.0.0.0 match

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 4
Example 4

  • Make the routing table for router R1

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 4 solution
Example 4 (Solution)

MaskDestinationNext HopInterface

255.255.0.0 134.18.0.0 - m0

255.255.0.0 129.8.0.0 222.13.16.40 m1

255.255.255.0 220.3.6.0 222.13.16.40 m1

0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 134.18.5.2 m0

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 5
Example 5

  • Make the routing table for router R1

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 5 solution
Example 5 (Solution)

MaskDestinationNext HopInterface

255.255.255.0 200.8.4.0 - m2

255.255.255.0 80.4.5.0 201.4.10.3 m1

or 200.8.4.12 or m2

255.255.255.0 80.4.6.0 201.4.10.3 m1

or 200.4.8.12 or m2

0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 ???????????? m0

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 6
Example 6

  • Given the routing table in the next slide, draw the topology.

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 6 cont d
Example 6 (cont’d)

MaskDestinationNext HopInterface

255.255.0.0 110.70.0.0 - m0

255.255.0.0 180.14.0.0 - m2

255.255.0.0 190.17.0.0 - m1

255.255.0.0 130.4.0.0 190.17.6.5 m1

255.255.0.0 140.6.0.0 180.14.2.5 m2

0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 110.70.4.6 m0

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


Example 6 solution
Example 6 (Solution)

ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming


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