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Basic Scientific and Technical Translation (II). Scientific and Technical Translation Lecturer: Ivan Yeung. 0 數字的翻譯. a hundred million a thousand million (Br) a billion (Am) (increasingly common) a billion (Br) * (increasingly rare) a trillion (Am) a thousand billion (Br)

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basic scientific and technical translation ii

Basic Scientific andTechnical Translation (II)

Scientific and Technical Translation

Lecturer: Ivan Yeung

slide2
0 數字的翻譯
  • a hundred million
  • a thousand million (Br)
  • a billion (Am)(increasingly common)
  • a billion (Br) * (increasingly rare)
  • a trillion (Am)
  • a thousand billion (Br)
  • a quadrillion (Am)
  • ten thousand billion (Br)
  • ten quadrillion (Am)
  • a trillion (Br)
  • a quintillion (Am)
  • 大陸台灣、英美用法不同
    • 一億 (108 )
    • 十億 (109)
    • 兆 * (1012)
    • 千兆 * (1015)
    • 京 * (1016)
    • 百京 * (1018)
slide3
0.1 數字的歧義
  • billion
    • 109:十億 (American),目前最常用
    • 1012:萬億 (British)
  • 兆*
    • 106:百萬,大陸地區通用於單位前綴表示倍數
      • megahertz (MHz) 兆赫 *
      • megapixel (MP / Mpx) 百萬像素 * (!)
    • 1012:萬億,台灣地區常用
    • 1016:億億,廢用
slide7
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.1 “percentage, fraction”
    • Annual production of steel has gone up by more than 25%.
      • 鋼的年產量提高了百分之二十五以上。
    • By 2005, the infected area had been expanded to one-third more than that of 2000.
      • 到了 2005 年,受感染面積較 2000 年時擴大了三分之一。
    • 動筆!
      • Production is now double what it was.
slide8
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
  • A) three times the length of something.
    • 三倍於某物的長度。(OAL)
    • 例:
      • A female giant weta bearing eggs weighed 71g - this is three times the weight of an average house mouse.
        • 懷卵的雌性沙螽體重達 71 g,約為一般家鼠的三倍重。
    • 動筆!
      • The longest human bone is the femur or thigh bone which is 48 cms long. It is so strong that it can support 30 times the weight of a man!
slide9
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
  • B) three times as long as something.
    • 某物的三倍長。(OAL)
  • 例:
    • 60 minutes is three times as long as 20 minutes and 40 pounds is four times as heavy as 10 pounds.
      • 20 分鐘的三倍是 60 分鐘,10 磅的四倍是 40 磅。
    • Aluminum is three times as heavy as polyethylene.
      • 鋁重為聚乙烯重的三倍。
      • 鋁比聚乙烯重二倍。(2.7 vs 0.92 – 0.94 g/cm3)
slide10
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
    • 動筆!
      • An atom of Carbon is twelve times as heavy as hydrogen while an atom of Aluminum is just over two times as heavy as carbon.
slide11
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
  • C) three times longer than something.
    • 比某物長兩倍。(OAL)
  • 例:
    • The total length of China\'s railway network is two times longer than that of France.
      • 中國鐵路網比法國的長一倍。(32,682 vs 70,000 km )
    • Krypton is three times heavier than air.
      • 氪氣比空氣重兩倍。(3.708 vs 1.25 kg/m3 )
    • Silver is three times heavier than quartz.* (wrong use!!)
      • 銀比石英重三倍。(10.5 vs 2.65 g/cm3) *
slide12
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
  • D) increased by three times.
    • increased threefold.
    • increased by a factor of three.
      • 增加了兩倍。
      • 增至 (原來的) 三倍。
    • The grain output has increased by three times.
      • 糧食產量增加了三倍。**
      • 糧食產量增加了兩倍。
    • The number of monkeys has increased more than twofold.
      • 猴子數量增加了多於兩倍。**
      • 猴子數量增加了一倍多。
slide13
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
  • 動筆!
    • Malwares have increased by three times in 2008
    • The West Nile Virus is spreading faster than federal health officials had expected, with the number of cases tripling to at least 164 since last week.
    • Nationwide, the CDC said at least 164 people in 16 states are infected, compared with 59 a week ago.
slide14
1 數量增加的翻譯
  • 1.2 “times”
    • Roundup exercise
    • 動筆!
      • Food production since Independence has also increased over four times (from 50 million metric tonnes in 1951 to over 200 million metric tonnes in 2001), while population growth has been a little less than three times (from 36 crores in 1951 to 102 crores in 2001)
slide15
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.1 “percentage, fraction”
    • The antibody level was reduced by 10 percent.
      • 抗體濃度降低了百分之十。
    • The volume of an electric motor can be reduced by one third by using glass fiber for electric insulation.
      • 用玻璃纖維作電器絕緣材料,可使電動機的體積縮小三分之一。
    • The loss of metal has been reduced to less than 20%.
      • 金屬損耗已降低至百分之二十以下。
slide16
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.1 “percentage, fraction”
    • 動筆!
      • The test results indicate that the olefin content of catalytically cracked gasoline can be significantly reduced to less than 20 v%, while sulfur content reduced by 15%-25%.
slide17
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.2 “half”
    • This rope is half as long as that one.
      • 這條繩子只有那條的一半長。
      • 這條繩子比那條短一半。
    • 動筆!
      • When the new Medical Library opens in three years, it will be half the old one’s size with 40 percent fewer books.
slide18
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.3 “times”
    • The length of the laser tube was reduced ten times.
      • 雷射管的長度縮短了十分之九。
      • 雷射管的長度縮短為十分之一。
    • The length has been shortened four times.
      • 長度縮短了四分之三。
      • 長度縮短至原來的四分之一。
    • Microsporidia branches have been shortened three times (double black break) to increase readability.
      • 微孢子蟲分支縮短了三分之二 (雙黑斜間) 以增加可讀性。*
      • 微孢子蟲分支縮短了三分之二 (雙線分隔標記) 以利閱讀。
slide19
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.4 “fold”
    • The principal advantage is a six-fold reduction in volume.
      • 主要優點是體積縮小了六分之五。
      • 主要優點是體積縮小為六分之一。*
      • 主要優點是體積縮小至原來的六分之一。
    • There is a three-fold fall in price.
      • 價格降低了三分之二。
      • 價格降低至原來的三分之一。
slide20
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.4 “fold”
    • 動筆!
    • The team showed a six-fold reduction of the effective size of the Zea mays (maize or corn) genome while creating a four-fold increase in the gene identification rate when compared to standard whole-genome sequencing methods.
slide21
2 數量減少的翻譯
  • 2.5 表示數量不確定的譯法
    • There are millions of stars like the sun in the universe.
      • 宇宙中有數以百萬計像太陽一樣的星球。*
      • 宇宙中有許許多多像太陽一樣的星球。*
    • The instruments of this variety will cost thousand odd dollars.
      • 這種儀器可值 1000 多元。
slide22
3 被動句的翻譯
  • 3.1 翻譯成中文被動句
    • 被動態可以翻譯成「被」、「由」、「讓」、「給」、「受」、「遭」、「為」、「所」、「為……所」
    • The compass was invented by Chinese long ago.
      • 很久以前,指南針被中國人發明。*
      • 很久以前,指南針早為中國人所發明。*
      • 很久以前,中國人發明了指南針。
    • Besides voltage, resistance and capacitance, an alternating current is also influenced by inductance.
      • 除了電壓、電阻和電容之外,交流電還受電感的影響。
slide23
3 被動句的翻譯
  • 3.1 翻譯成中文被動句 (續)
    • The metal hardened when it was cooled in the air.
      • 這種金屬在空氣中冷卻時,就會硬化。
    • Purified hydrogen is passed over a hot catalyst.
      • 讓純化氫氣通過熱催化劑。
    • 動筆!
      • The atomic theory was not accepted until the last century.
slide24
3 被動句的翻譯
  • 3.2 翻譯成中文主動句
    • Other evaporation materials and processes will be discussed briefly.
      • 其他一些蒸發材料和蒸發程序將簡要地加以討論。
    • Resistance is measured in ohms.
      • 電阻是以歐姆為單位被量度的。**
      • 電阻是以歐姆為單位(來)量度的。
    • No work can be done without energy.
      • 沒有能量,就不能做工。
slide25
3 被動句的翻譯
  • 2.2 翻譯成中文主動句 (續)
    • A film of oil is inserted between the sliding surfaces of a bearing.
      • 承軸的滑動面之間上了一層油膜。
    • It has been found that this machine is similar to the other one in design.
      • 人們已經發現,這台機器和那台機器在結構上是相似的。*
      • 人們發現,這台機器和那台機器結構相似。*
      • 這兩台機器結構相似。
    • The field trip will be lead by Professor Li.
      • 李教授會帶這次野外考察。
      • 這次野外考察由李教授帶領。
slide26
3 被動句的翻譯
  • 2.2 翻譯成中文主動句 (續)
    • 動筆!
    • Measures have been taken to diminish friction.
    • Special instruments for measuring cosmic rays are installed in the satellite.
    • Much progress has been made in biological cloning technology in less than a decade.
slide27
4 否定句的翻譯
  • 4.1 全部否定
    • Compare the following sentences
      • He is not an engineer.
        • 他不是工程師。
      • He is no engineer.
        • 他根本不是工程師。
slide28
4 否定句的翻譯
  • 4.1 全部否定 (續)
    • Not all matter is visible. Air is not visible, but it is matter. * (部分否定,見 4.2)
      • 不是所有物質都是看得見的。空氣是看不見的,但空氣是物質。
    • The proton carries a positive charge and the electron carries a negative charge, but the neutron carries neither.
      • 質子帶正電荷,電子帶負電荷,中子兩種電荷都不帶。
slide29
4 否定句的翻譯
  • 4.2 部分否定
    • 動筆!
      • All that glitters is not gold.
      • Both the instruments are not precision ones.
      • Every machine here is not produced by our factory.
slide30
4 否定句的翻譯
  • 4.3 雙重否定
    • There is no grammatical rule that does not have exceptions.
      • 沒有一條語法規則沒有例外。
      • 每條語法規則都有例外。
    • Heat can never be converted into a certain energy without something lost.
      • 熱能每逢轉換成某種能量時,總是不能不損耗掉一些。**
      • 熱能轉換成其他能量時,總是有損耗。
slide31
4 否定句的翻譯
  • 4.4 意義上的否定
    • In the absence of force, a body will either remain at rest or continue to move with constant speed in a straight line.
      • 沒有外力,物體不是保持靜止,就是一直沿著直線作勻速運動。
    • This equation is far from being complicated.
      • 這個方程式一點也不複雜。
    • Unless there is motion, there is no work.
      • 沒有運動,就沒有功。
slide32
4 否定句的翻譯
  • 3.4 意義上的否定 (續)
    • 動筆!
      • Farad is too large a unit to be used in radio calculation.
slide33
本節完
  • 休息一會
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