Basic scientific and technical translation ii
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Basic Scientific and Technical Translation (II). Scientific and Technical Translation Lecturer: Ivan Yeung. 0 數字的翻譯. a hundred million a thousand million (Br) a billion (Am) (increasingly common) a billion (Br) * (increasingly rare) a trillion (Am) a thousand billion (Br)

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Basic Scientific and Technical Translation (II)

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Basic scientific and technical translation ii

Basic Scientific andTechnical Translation (II)

Scientific and Technical Translation

Lecturer: Ivan Yeung


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

0 數字的翻譯

  • a hundred million

  • a thousand million (Br)

  • a billion (Am)(increasingly common)

  • a billion (Br) * (increasingly rare)

  • a trillion (Am)

  • a thousand billion (Br)

  • a quadrillion (Am)

  • ten thousand billion (Br)

  • ten quadrillion (Am)

  • a trillion (Br)

  • a quintillion (Am)

  • 大陸台灣、英美用法不同

    • 一億 (108 )

    • 十億 (109)

    • 兆 * (1012)

    • 千兆 * (1015)

    • 京 * (1016)

    • 百京 * (1018)


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

0.1 數字的歧義

  • billion

    • 109:十億 (American),目前最常用

    • 1012:萬億 (British)

  • 兆*

    • 106:百萬,大陸地區通用於單位前綴表示倍數

      • megahertz (MHz) 兆赫 *

      • megapixel (MP / Mpx) 百萬像素 * (!)

    • 1012:萬億,台灣地區常用

    • 1016:億億,廢用


0 2 numbers

0.2 numbers


0 3 si prefixes

0.3 SI prefixes


0 3 si prefixes1

0.3 SI prefixes


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.1 “percentage, fraction”

    • Annual production of steel has gone up by more than 25%.

      • 鋼的年產量提高了百分之二十五以上。

    • By 2005, the infected area had been expanded to one-third more than that of 2000.

      • 到了 2005 年,受感染面積較 2000 年時擴大了三分之一。

    • 動筆!

      • Production is now double what it was.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

  • A) three times the length of something.

    • 三倍於某物的長度。(OAL)

    • 例:

      • A female giant weta bearing eggs weighed 71g - this is three times the weight of an average house mouse.

        • 懷卵的雌性沙螽體重達 71 g,約為一般家鼠的三倍重。

    • 動筆!

      • The longest human bone is the femur or thigh bone which is 48 cms long. It is so strong that it can support 30 times the weight of a man!


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

  • B) three times as long as something.

    • 某物的三倍長。(OAL)

  • 例:

    • 60 minutes is three times as long as 20 minutes and 40 pounds is four times as heavy as 10 pounds.

      • 20 分鐘的三倍是 60 分鐘,10 磅的四倍是 40 磅。

    • Aluminum is three times as heavy as polyethylene.

      • 鋁重為聚乙烯重的三倍。

      • 鋁比聚乙烯重二倍。(2.7 vs 0.92 – 0.94 g/cm3)


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

    • 動筆!

      • An atom of Carbon is twelve times as heavy as hydrogen while an atom of Aluminum is just over two times as heavy as carbon.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

  • C) three times longer than something.

    • 比某物長兩倍。(OAL)

  • 例:

    • The total length of China's railway network is two times longer than that of France.

      • 中國鐵路網比法國的長一倍。(32,682 vs 70,000 km )

    • Krypton is three times heavier than air.

      • 氪氣比空氣重兩倍。(3.708 vs 1.25 kg/m3 )

    • Silver is three times heavier than quartz.* (wrong use!!)

      • 銀比石英重三倍。(10.5 vs 2.65 g/cm3) *


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

  • D) increased by three times.

    • increased threefold.

    • increased by a factor of three.

      • 增加了兩倍。

      • 增至 (原來的) 三倍。

    • The grain output has increased by three times.

      • 糧食產量增加了三倍。**

      • 糧食產量增加了兩倍。

    • The number of monkeys has increased more than twofold.

      • 猴子數量增加了多於兩倍。**

      • 猴子數量增加了一倍多。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

  • 動筆!

    • Malwares have increased by three times in 2008

    • The West Nile Virus is spreading faster than federal health officials had expected, with the number of cases tripling to at least 164 since last week.

    • Nationwide, the CDC said at least 164 people in 16 states are infected, compared with 59 a week ago.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

1 數量增加的翻譯

  • 1.2 “times”

    • Roundup exercise

    • 動筆!

      • Food production since Independence has also increased over four times (from 50 million metric tonnes in 1951 to over 200 million metric tonnes in 2001), while population growth has been a little less than three times (from 36 crores in 1951 to 102 crores in 2001)


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.1 “percentage, fraction”

    • The antibody level was reduced by 10 percent.

      • 抗體濃度降低了百分之十。

    • The volume of an electric motor can be reduced by one third by using glass fiber for electric insulation.

      • 用玻璃纖維作電器絕緣材料,可使電動機的體積縮小三分之一。

    • The loss of metal has been reduced to less than 20%.

      • 金屬損耗已降低至百分之二十以下。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.1 “percentage, fraction”

    • 動筆!

      • The test results indicate that the olefin content of catalytically cracked gasoline can be significantly reduced to less than 20 v%, while sulfur content reduced by 15%-25%.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.2 “half”

    • This rope is half as long as that one.

      • 這條繩子只有那條的一半長。

      • 這條繩子比那條短一半。

    • 動筆!

      • When the new Medical Library opens in three years, it will be half the old one’s size with 40 percent fewer books.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.3 “times”

    • The length of the laser tube was reduced ten times.

      • 雷射管的長度縮短了十分之九。

      • 雷射管的長度縮短為十分之一。

    • The length has been shortened four times.

      • 長度縮短了四分之三。

      • 長度縮短至原來的四分之一。

    • Microsporidia branches have been shortened three times (double black break) to increase readability.

      • 微孢子蟲分支縮短了三分之二 (雙黑斜間) 以增加可讀性。*

      • 微孢子蟲分支縮短了三分之二 (雙線分隔標記) 以利閱讀。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.4 “fold”

    • The principal advantage is a six-fold reduction in volume.

      • 主要優點是體積縮小了六分之五。

      • 主要優點是體積縮小為六分之一。*

      • 主要優點是體積縮小至原來的六分之一。

    • There is a three-fold fall in price.

      • 價格降低了三分之二。

      • 價格降低至原來的三分之一。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.4 “fold”

    • 動筆!

    • The team showed a six-fold reduction of the effective size of the Zea mays (maize or corn) genome while creating a four-fold increase in the gene identification rate when compared to standard whole-genome sequencing methods.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

2 數量減少的翻譯

  • 2.5 表示數量不確定的譯法

    • There are millions of stars like the sun in the universe.

      • 宇宙中有數以百萬計像太陽一樣的星球。*

      • 宇宙中有許許多多像太陽一樣的星球。*

    • The instruments of this variety will cost thousand odd dollars.

      • 這種儀器可值 1000 多元。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

3 被動句的翻譯

  • 3.1 翻譯成中文被動句

    • 被動態可以翻譯成「被」、「由」、「讓」、「給」、「受」、「遭」、「為」、「所」、「為……所」

    • The compass was invented by Chinese long ago.

      • 很久以前,指南針被中國人發明。*

      • 很久以前,指南針早為中國人所發明。*

      • 很久以前,中國人發明了指南針。

    • Besides voltage, resistance and capacitance, an alternating current is also influenced by inductance.

      • 除了電壓、電阻和電容之外,交流電還受電感的影響。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

3 被動句的翻譯

  • 3.1 翻譯成中文被動句 (續)

    • The metal hardened when it was cooled in the air.

      • 這種金屬在空氣中冷卻時,就會硬化。

    • Purified hydrogen is passed over a hot catalyst.

      • 讓純化氫氣通過熱催化劑。

    • 動筆!

      • The atomic theory was not accepted until the last century.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

3 被動句的翻譯

  • 3.2 翻譯成中文主動句

    • Other evaporation materials and processes will be discussed briefly.

      • 其他一些蒸發材料和蒸發程序將簡要地加以討論。

    • Resistance is measured in ohms.

      • 電阻是以歐姆為單位被量度的。**

      • 電阻是以歐姆為單位(來)量度的。

    • No work can be done without energy.

      • 沒有能量,就不能做工。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

3 被動句的翻譯

  • 2.2 翻譯成中文主動句 (續)

    • A film of oil is inserted between the sliding surfaces of a bearing.

      • 承軸的滑動面之間上了一層油膜。

    • It has been found that this machine is similar to the other one in design.

      • 人們已經發現,這台機器和那台機器在結構上是相似的。*

      • 人們發現,這台機器和那台機器結構相似。*

      • 這兩台機器結構相似。

    • The field trip will be lead by Professor Li.

      • 李教授會帶這次野外考察。

      • 這次野外考察由李教授帶領。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

3 被動句的翻譯

  • 2.2 翻譯成中文主動句 (續)

    • 動筆!

    • Measures have been taken to diminish friction.

    • Special instruments for measuring cosmic rays are installed in the satellite.

    • Much progress has been made in biological cloning technology in less than a decade.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

4 否定句的翻譯

  • 4.1 全部否定

    • Compare the following sentences

      • He is not an engineer.

        • 他不是工程師。

      • He is no engineer.

        • 他根本不是工程師。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

4 否定句的翻譯

  • 4.1 全部否定 (續)

    • Not all matter is visible. Air is not visible, but it is matter. * (部分否定,見 4.2)

      • 不是所有物質都是看得見的。空氣是看不見的,但空氣是物質。

    • The proton carries a positive charge and the electron carries a negative charge, but the neutron carries neither.

      • 質子帶正電荷,電子帶負電荷,中子兩種電荷都不帶。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

4 否定句的翻譯

  • 4.2 部分否定

    • 動筆!

      • All that glitters is not gold.

      • Both the instruments are not precision ones.

      • Every machine here is not produced by our factory.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

4 否定句的翻譯

  • 4.3 雙重否定

    • There is no grammatical rule that does not have exceptions.

      • 沒有一條語法規則沒有例外。

      • 每條語法規則都有例外。

    • Heat can never be converted into a certain energy without something lost.

      • 熱能每逢轉換成某種能量時,總是不能不損耗掉一些。**

      • 熱能轉換成其他能量時,總是有損耗。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

4 否定句的翻譯

  • 4.4 意義上的否定

    • In the absence of force, a body will either remain at rest or continue to move with constant speed in a straight line.

      • 沒有外力,物體不是保持靜止,就是一直沿著直線作勻速運動。

    • This equation is far from being complicated.

      • 這個方程式一點也不複雜。

    • Unless there is motion, there is no work.

      • 沒有運動,就沒有功。


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

4 否定句的翻譯

  • 3.4 意義上的否定 (續)

    • 動筆!

      • Farad is too large a unit to be used in radio calculation.


Basic scientific and technical translation ii

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