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THE COLD WAR. READINGS : Smith, et al., 950-955, 959-985. WHAT WAS THE COLD WAR?. Undeclared War between Two Superpowers United States Democracy Capitalism Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Communism Theatres of Battle: Proxy wars in other countries Nuclear Arms Race Space Race

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The cold war

THE COLD WAR

READINGS: Smith, et al., 950-955, 959-985


What was the cold war
WHAT WAS THE COLD WAR?

  • Undeclared War between Two Superpowers

    • United States

      • Democracy

      • Capitalism

    • Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)

      • Communism

  • Theatres of Battle:

    • Proxy wars in other countries

    • Nuclear Arms Race

    • Space Race

    • Economic Competition


Cold war in europe
COLD WAR IN EUROPE

  • Fear of Communism in Greece, Italy, and France

  • Fear of Revival of Fascism in Germany

    • July 1947 – Marshall Plan

    • April 1949 – Creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Orga1nization)

    • August 29, 1949 – Soviets detonate Atomic Bomb

    • 1955 – Soviets form Warsaw Pact

    • October 4, 1957 – Soviets launch Sputnik


Korean problems
KOREAN PROBLEMS

  • End of World War II:

  • North Korea (Soviet Zone):

    • Soviets turn North Korea into militarized Communist State under Kim Il-Sung

  • South Korea (U.S. Zone):

    • Korean’s Create “People’s Republic”

      • U.S. refuses recognition

        • Economy so tied into Japan’s not sure want to separate it

        • Don’t want to give land confiscated by Japanese back to Koreans

        • Reluctantly agreed to back South Korea as United Nations recommended Korea’s independence


North korea
NORTH KOREA

  • Kim Il-Sung

    • Born into Christian family

    • Organized anti-Japanese resistance movement from USSR in 1930s

    • Proclaimed “People’s Democratic Republic” (September 9, 1948)

    • Institutionalized dictatorship modeled on Stalin’s

      • Repressed/killed thousands and created a police state


South korea
SOUTH KOREA

  • Rhee Syngman

    • Nationalist and Christian

    • Politically conservative

    • Spent many years in the U.S.

    • Unpopular with many non-Christians

    • Unpopular with Koreans opposed to U.S. influence

      • Led to leftist movements

        • He imprisoned thousands and created police state


Korean war 1950 1953
KOREAN WAR (1950-1953)

  • Both Koreas wanted Reunification – with force if necessary

  • United Nations passed resolution in favor of democratic unified Korea

  • North Korea (with Soviet and Chinese support) invaded South Korea (June 25, 1950)

    • U.S. General Douglas MacArthur ordered U.N. invasion of North Korea

      • With the successful invasion of North Korea, MacArthur wanted to push into China

    • Threatened by U.N./U.S. invasion, China supported North Korean Advance into South Korea

  • With stalemate, armistice signed restoring division at 38th Parallel (June 27, 1953) – nothing changed, no treaty signed


North korea1
North Korea

  • Kim Il-Sung: “Thinking about reunification makes it impossible for me to sleep at night”

  • In 1961 – North Korea per capita income twice that of South Korea

  • Many students in South envious of northern brothers

  • But North Korea could not sustain development without Soviet help, which gradually, then suddenly disappeared

  • North Korea won of poorest nations in world today

  • Leaders (Kim Jong-Il and Kim Jong-sun) have been among most dangerous


South korea1
South Korea

  • Syngman Rhee: “An armistice without national unification [is] a death sentence wthout protest.”

  • With US aid, South Korea has become one of Asia’s “Little Tigers,” a modern industrial nation that produces

  • appliances, electronics, and automobiles for export

  • Boasts 98% literacy and claims highest digital literacy in the world

  • Remains a solid US ally

  • Right-slide at 1988 Olympics



The chinese revolution
THE CHINESE REVOLUTION

  • Sun Yat-sen – Father of Modern China? (Elected President Dec. 30, 1911)

  • May 4th Movement (May 4, 1919)

  • 1920 – 1949 Civil War between Nationalists and Communists


Chinese nationalists
CHINESE NATIONALISTS

  • Kuomintang (KMT)

  • Under leadership of Chiang Kai-shek

    • Allied with Shanghai business community

  • Formed United Front with Chinese Communists to unify country between 1926 and 1928

  • 1928 - Expelled communists and killed thousands

  • Chiang ran the Republic of China from 1928-1937 from Capital in Nanjing

  • Attempted to modernize China along western lines

    • Received significant public and private aid from the United States


Chinese communists
CHINESE COMMUNISTS

  • Mao Zedong

    • Peasant who saw base of Communists in Peasantry

    • Used violence to redistribute property

  • 1935 – “Long March” with 100,000 soldiers

    • Fought 6,000 miles on foot

    • Moved into Northern Shensi Province

    • Set up Headquarters in Yenan - 1936


Japanese invasion of china 1937
JAPANESE INVASION OF CHINA, 1937

  • Communists and Nationalists form uneasy front against Japan

  • Communists build up peasant support in Northern China

  • Communists build mass-based party

  • Communists foster cult of people/peasants


End of world war ii in china
END OF WORLD WAR II IN CHINA

  • U.S. wants Nationalists and Communists to form coalition government

    • Nationalists refuse

      • Have more U.S. weapons

      • Thought could easily defeat CCP

      • Had no cause

      • Had no economic program

      • Many KMT generals warlords who fought each other for territory


Chinese civil war 1946 1949
CHINESE CIVIL WAR, 1946-1949

  • Communists had millions of peasants, few weapons

  • Gradually defeated KMT

    • Confiscated weapons

  • October 1, 1949, victorious Mao proclaims “The People’s Republic of China”

  • Chiang Kai-Shek, KMT flee to Taiwan


People s republic of china 1949 1957
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, 1949-1957

  • Communists consolidate power

  • Economy a disaster at end of war

    • Rebuilt it rapidly with Soviet assistance, but still backward

    • Collectivized agriculture

    • Tried to industrialize along Soviet lines

      • Failed – too backward


Great leap forward 1958
“Great Leap Forward” - 1958

  • Urban population up 30% 1952-1957

    • Grain production stagnant

  • Mao solution – industrialize on the collectives

    • Put factories in rural areas

    • Worked at first

    • Failed without Soviet Assistance

  • 1959 Huge Famine


The cultural revolution 1960 1978
“THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION” 1960-1978

  • Famine challenged communist myths

    • Peasants, workers turned against Mao and the CCP

  • The Cultural Revolution

    • Reeducate masses

      • Universities closed

      • Dissidents attacked

      • Millions killed, tortured, imprisoned

      • Only ended with Mao’s Death


U s and china
U.S. AND CHINA

  • Both Chiang Kai-Shek and Mao Zedong committed to “One China”

  • Before 1971, U.S. recognized Nationalist Taiwan as “official” China

  • July 1971 – President Richard Nixon sends Henry Kissinger to China

  • October 1971, Taiwan Kicked out of U.N., “People’s Republic of China” brought in

  • May 1973 – Chinese and U.S. “normalize” all relations

    • Nixon agrees Taiwan should be reunified with China

  • January 1, 1979 President Jimmy Carter recognizes “People’s Republic of China” as “official” government of China


China under deng xioaping 1978 1997
CHINA UNDER DENG XIOAPING (1978-1997)

  • Under Deng Xioping, China moves rapidly in a capitalist direction

    • Encourages trade, especially with the U.S.

  • Limited Democracy – much official repression

  • Tiananmen Square Massacre

    • Brings tanks in to fire on students protesting for Democracy, Liberal ideals of French and American Revolution





Taiwan
TAIWAN

  • Island largely populated by Malay peoples

  • Taiwan only annexed by Qing Dynasty in 17th Century

    • Encourage Chinese migration

  • 1894/1910 Taiwan becomes Japanese Colony

    • Fostered Industrialization

    • Fostered Mass Education

      • 1944 – 71% Chinese Literate

        • Only 10% Literate in Dutch East Indies and French Indochina

    • Restricted Taiwanese university education

    • Allowed Taiwanese farmers to own land

  • Main Point: Taiwan’s 20th Century History very different from that of Mainland China


End of world war ii
END OF WORLD WAR II

  • Taiwan Reunified with China

    • KMT ruled Taiwan as conquered colony

    • Taiwanese Rebellion 1947

      • 10,000 Taiwanese killed


Defeat of kmt 1949
DEFEAT OF KMT - 1949

  • Communists defeat Nationalists (KMT) in Chinese Civil War

  • Chiang Kai-shek and 2 million KMT soldiers flee to Taiwan

    • Brutally chase Taiwanese out of homes, factories, land

    • Thousands more killed

    • Taiwanese believe Chinese Nationalists worse than Japanese


United states and taiwan
UNITED STATES AND TAIWAN

  • 1949 - U.S. recognizes Taiwan as “true” China

    • Taiwan admitted to United Nations

  • Taiwan grew economically

  • The KMT dictatorship morphs into democracy

  • U.S. invested capital

  • U.S. provided military support


Is taiwan a separate nation or a province of china
IS TAIWAN A SEPARATE NATION OR A PROVINCE OF CHINA?

  • Improved U.S. Relations with Mao -> Taiwan no longer recognized

    • Tensions persist between China and Taiwan

  • Lee Teng-hui – member of KMT – first elected President of Taiwan 1996

    • Proclaims Taiwan will deal with mainland China on the basis of “special state-to-state relations”

      • China rejects “two-state theory”

    • Chen Shui-bian, head of Democratic Progressive Party, native Taiwanese elected President March 2000

      • Platform calls for Independent Taiwan

      • First victory of native Taiwanese over KMT

  • Significant and often escalating tensions between China and Taiwan

  • Ma-Ying-Jeou, ardent KMT, becomes President in March 2008


Is one china possible
IS ONE CHINA POSSIBLE?

  • President Bush stands firm on U.S. Commitment to “One China” but…

    • Taiwan very democratic, little democracy in China

    • 1992: China’s per capita GNP $560.00, Taiwan’s $9,300

    • 2006: China’s per capita GNP $7,700,

    • Taiwan’s $29,000

    • U.S. ignores many human rights abuses in China, but…

  • China has 3rd largest economy in the world

  • U.S. has many economic interests in both Taiwan and China

  • Much of Chinese investment comes from Taiwanese


Vietnam
VIETNAM

  • Under French colonial control from 1880s

    • Created plantation economy in hands of French

      • Destroyed Vietnamese families

      • Took Vietnamese land

      • Used Vietnamese as forced laborers

      • Much resentment


Ho chi minh
Ho Chi Minh

  • One of Many Vietnamese nationalists opposed to French rule

  • Went to Paris seeking national self-determination for Vietnam in 1919-1920

    • No one would talk to him

      • Founded French Communist Party

  • Studied in the Soviet Union

  • Launched nationalist uprisings from China in 1930s

    • French put down uprisings, killing thousands

    • Had little influence in country


Japanese acquire vietnam
JAPANESE ACQUIRE VIETNAM

  • Germans make France give Vietnam to Japan 1940

  • When obvious would lose, Japanese attacked French in Vietnam

  • U.S. supports Ho Chi Minh, who creates Viet Minh to liberate Vietnam

  • General Vo Nguyen Giap occupies Hanoi after Japanese surrender

    • Proclaims Provisional Government with Ho Chi Minh as President

  • Ho Chi Minh proclaims Democratic Republic of Vietnam – September 2, 1945


Vietnamese war against the french
VIETNAMESE WAR AGAINST THE FRENCH

  • French insist on keeping Vietnam leading to war 1946-1954

  • Ho Chi Minh controls North

  • French create puppet regime under Bao Dai, last of Nguyen emperors in South

  • War with France ends when Vietnamese devastate French troops in Battle of Dien Bien Phu - 1954


The vietnam war
THE VIETNAM WAR

  • Geneva Conference

    • U.S. originally backed Ho Chi Minh, but scared by development of Communism in Korea and China

      • “The Domino Theory”

      • Recognized French government of Bao Dai

      • Gave government $4 billion in aid 1950-1954

    • Now U.S. backed division of country at 17th Parallel

      • Ho Chi Minh controlled North

      • Ngo Dinh Diem backed by U.S. controlled the Republic of Vietnam in the South

  • Soviets and China sent material aid but no soldiers to North Vietnam

  • U.S. sent half a million soldiers to South by 1969


Defeat of south vietnam
DEFEAT OF SOUTH VIETNAM

  • South difficult to govern

    • Multiethnic

    • Divisions between Buddhists and Catholics

    • Corruption in Government

    • Ho Chi Minh sometimes popular as nationalist

  • Terrain difficult

    • U.S. dropped more tons of bombs on Vietnam than they did on Japan in World War II

    • U.S. used napalm to destroy foliage

  • Atrocities led much U.S. public opinion against war, many demonstrations

  • U.S. withdraws after much protest – 1973

    • Two years later, Saigon falls

    • Vietnam becomes Communist

    • Those who could, left

    • Vietnam communist, but moving in Capitalist direction like China

    • Still one of poorest countries in Asia


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