The cold war
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THE COLD WAR. READINGS : Smith, et al., 950-955, 959-985. WHAT WAS THE COLD WAR?. Undeclared War between Two Superpowers United States Democracy Capitalism Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Communism Theatres of Battle: Proxy wars in other countries Nuclear Arms Race Space Race

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THE COLD WAR

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The cold war

THE COLD WAR

READINGS: Smith, et al., 950-955, 959-985


What was the cold war

WHAT WAS THE COLD WAR?

  • Undeclared War between Two Superpowers

    • United States

      • Democracy

      • Capitalism

    • Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)

      • Communism

  • Theatres of Battle:

    • Proxy wars in other countries

    • Nuclear Arms Race

    • Space Race

    • Economic Competition


Cold war in europe

COLD WAR IN EUROPE

  • Fear of Communism in Greece, Italy, and France

  • Fear of Revival of Fascism in Germany

    • July 1947 – Marshall Plan

    • April 1949 – Creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Orga1nization)

    • August 29, 1949 – Soviets detonate Atomic Bomb

    • 1955 – Soviets form Warsaw Pact

    • October 4, 1957 – Soviets launch Sputnik


Korean problems

KOREAN PROBLEMS

  • End of World War II:

  • North Korea (Soviet Zone):

    • Soviets turn North Korea into militarized Communist State under Kim Il-Sung

  • South Korea (U.S. Zone):

    • Korean’s Create “People’s Republic”

      • U.S. refuses recognition

        • Economy so tied into Japan’s not sure want to separate it

        • Don’t want to give land confiscated by Japanese back to Koreans

        • Reluctantly agreed to back South Korea as United Nations recommended Korea’s independence


North korea

NORTH KOREA

  • Kim Il-Sung

    • Born into Christian family

    • Organized anti-Japanese resistance movement from USSR in 1930s

    • Proclaimed “People’s Democratic Republic” (September 9, 1948)

    • Institutionalized dictatorship modeled on Stalin’s

      • Repressed/killed thousands and created a police state


South korea

SOUTH KOREA

  • Rhee Syngman

    • Nationalist and Christian

    • Politically conservative

    • Spent many years in the U.S.

    • Unpopular with many non-Christians

    • Unpopular with Koreans opposed to U.S. influence

      • Led to leftist movements

        • He imprisoned thousands and created police state


Korean war 1950 1953

KOREAN WAR (1950-1953)

  • Both Koreas wanted Reunification – with force if necessary

  • United Nations passed resolution in favor of democratic unified Korea

  • North Korea (with Soviet and Chinese support) invaded South Korea (June 25, 1950)

    • U.S. General Douglas MacArthur ordered U.N. invasion of North Korea

      • With the successful invasion of North Korea, MacArthur wanted to push into China

    • Threatened by U.N./U.S. invasion, China supported North Korean Advance into South Korea

  • With stalemate, armistice signed restoring division at 38th Parallel (June 27, 1953) – nothing changed, no treaty signed


North korea1

North Korea

  • Kim Il-Sung: “Thinking about reunification makes it impossible for me to sleep at night”

  • In 1961 – North Korea per capita income twice that of South Korea

  • Many students in South envious of northern brothers

  • But North Korea could not sustain development without Soviet help, which gradually, then suddenly disappeared

  • North Korea won of poorest nations in world today

  • Leaders (Kim Jong-Il and Kim Jong-sun) have been among most dangerous


South korea1

South Korea

  • Syngman Rhee: “An armistice without national unification [is] a death sentence wthout protest.”

  • With US aid, South Korea has become one of Asia’s “Little Tigers,” a modern industrial nation that produces

  • appliances, electronics, and automobiles for export

  • Boasts 98% literacy and claims highest digital literacy in the world

  • Remains a solid US ally

  • Right-slide at 1988 Olympics


South korea brothers memorial

South Korea Brothers Memorial


The chinese revolution

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION

  • Sun Yat-sen – Father of Modern China? (Elected President Dec. 30, 1911)

  • May 4th Movement (May 4, 1919)

  • 1920 – 1949 Civil War between Nationalists and Communists


Chinese nationalists

CHINESE NATIONALISTS

  • Kuomintang (KMT)

  • Under leadership of Chiang Kai-shek

    • Allied with Shanghai business community

  • Formed United Front with Chinese Communists to unify country between 1926 and 1928

  • 1928 - Expelled communists and killed thousands

  • Chiang ran the Republic of China from 1928-1937 from Capital in Nanjing

  • Attempted to modernize China along western lines

    • Received significant public and private aid from the United States


Chinese communists

CHINESE COMMUNISTS

  • Mao Zedong

    • Peasant who saw base of Communists in Peasantry

    • Used violence to redistribute property

  • 1935 – “Long March” with 100,000 soldiers

    • Fought 6,000 miles on foot

    • Moved into Northern Shensi Province

    • Set up Headquarters in Yenan - 1936


Japanese invasion of china 1937

JAPANESE INVASION OF CHINA, 1937

  • Communists and Nationalists form uneasy front against Japan

  • Communists build up peasant support in Northern China

  • Communists build mass-based party

  • Communists foster cult of people/peasants


End of world war ii in china

END OF WORLD WAR II IN CHINA

  • U.S. wants Nationalists and Communists to form coalition government

    • Nationalists refuse

      • Have more U.S. weapons

      • Thought could easily defeat CCP

      • Had no cause

      • Had no economic program

      • Many KMT generals warlords who fought each other for territory


Chinese civil war 1946 1949

CHINESE CIVIL WAR, 1946-1949

  • Communists had millions of peasants, few weapons

  • Gradually defeated KMT

    • Confiscated weapons

  • October 1, 1949, victorious Mao proclaims “The People’s Republic of China”

  • Chiang Kai-Shek, KMT flee to Taiwan


People s republic of china 1949 1957

PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, 1949-1957

  • Communists consolidate power

  • Economy a disaster at end of war

    • Rebuilt it rapidly with Soviet assistance, but still backward

    • Collectivized agriculture

    • Tried to industrialize along Soviet lines

      • Failed – too backward


Great leap forward 1958

“Great Leap Forward” - 1958

  • Urban population up 30% 1952-1957

    • Grain production stagnant

  • Mao solution – industrialize on the collectives

    • Put factories in rural areas

    • Worked at first

    • Failed without Soviet Assistance

  • 1959 Huge Famine


The cultural revolution 1960 1978

“THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION” 1960-1978

  • Famine challenged communist myths

    • Peasants, workers turned against Mao and the CCP

  • The Cultural Revolution

    • Reeducate masses

      • Universities closed

      • Dissidents attacked

      • Millions killed, tortured, imprisoned

      • Only ended with Mao’s Death


U s and china

U.S. AND CHINA

  • Both Chiang Kai-Shek and Mao Zedong committed to “One China”

  • Before 1971, U.S. recognized Nationalist Taiwan as “official” China

  • July 1971 – President Richard Nixon sends Henry Kissinger to China

  • October 1971, Taiwan Kicked out of U.N., “People’s Republic of China” brought in

  • May 1973 – Chinese and U.S. “normalize” all relations

    • Nixon agrees Taiwan should be reunified with China

  • January 1, 1979 President Jimmy Carter recognizes “People’s Republic of China” as “official” government of China


China under deng xioaping 1978 1997

CHINA UNDER DENG XIOAPING (1978-1997)

  • Under Deng Xioping, China moves rapidly in a capitalist direction

    • Encourages trade, especially with the U.S.

  • Limited Democracy – much official repression

  • Tiananmen Square Massacre

    • Brings tanks in to fire on students protesting for Democracy, Liberal ideals of French and American Revolution


Contemporary china

CONTEMPORARY CHINA


With baoding english class

With Baoding English Class


Challenges china faces

CHALLENGES CHINA FACES


Taiwan

TAIWAN

  • Island largely populated by Malay peoples

  • Taiwan only annexed by Qing Dynasty in 17th Century

    • Encourage Chinese migration

  • 1894/1910 Taiwan becomes Japanese Colony

    • Fostered Industrialization

    • Fostered Mass Education

      • 1944 – 71% Chinese Literate

        • Only 10% Literate in Dutch East Indies and French Indochina

    • Restricted Taiwanese university education

    • Allowed Taiwanese farmers to own land

  • Main Point: Taiwan’s 20th Century History very different from that of Mainland China


End of world war ii

END OF WORLD WAR II

  • Taiwan Reunified with China

    • KMT ruled Taiwan as conquered colony

    • Taiwanese Rebellion 1947

      • 10,000 Taiwanese killed


Defeat of kmt 1949

DEFEAT OF KMT - 1949

  • Communists defeat Nationalists (KMT) in Chinese Civil War

  • Chiang Kai-shek and 2 million KMT soldiers flee to Taiwan

    • Brutally chase Taiwanese out of homes, factories, land

    • Thousands more killed

    • Taiwanese believe Chinese Nationalists worse than Japanese


United states and taiwan

UNITED STATES AND TAIWAN

  • 1949 - U.S. recognizes Taiwan as “true” China

    • Taiwan admitted to United Nations

  • Taiwan grew economically

  • The KMT dictatorship morphs into democracy

  • U.S. invested capital

  • U.S. provided military support


Is taiwan a separate nation or a province of china

IS TAIWAN A SEPARATE NATION OR A PROVINCE OF CHINA?

  • Improved U.S. Relations with Mao -> Taiwan no longer recognized

    • Tensions persist between China and Taiwan

  • Lee Teng-hui – member of KMT – first elected President of Taiwan 1996

    • Proclaims Taiwan will deal with mainland China on the basis of “special state-to-state relations”

      • China rejects “two-state theory”

    • Chen Shui-bian, head of Democratic Progressive Party, native Taiwanese elected President March 2000

      • Platform calls for Independent Taiwan

      • First victory of native Taiwanese over KMT

  • Significant and often escalating tensions between China and Taiwan

  • Ma-Ying-Jeou, ardent KMT, becomes President in March 2008


Is one china possible

IS ONE CHINA POSSIBLE?

  • President Bush stands firm on U.S. Commitment to “One China” but…

    • Taiwan very democratic, little democracy in China

    • 1992: China’s per capita GNP $560.00, Taiwan’s $9,300

    • 2006: China’s per capita GNP $7,700,

    • Taiwan’s $29,000

    • U.S. ignores many human rights abuses in China, but…

  • China has 3rd largest economy in the world

  • U.S. has many economic interests in both Taiwan and China

  • Much of Chinese investment comes from Taiwanese


Vietnam

VIETNAM

  • Under French colonial control from 1880s

    • Created plantation economy in hands of French

      • Destroyed Vietnamese families

      • Took Vietnamese land

      • Used Vietnamese as forced laborers

      • Much resentment


Ho chi minh

Ho Chi Minh

  • One of Many Vietnamese nationalists opposed to French rule

  • Went to Paris seeking national self-determination for Vietnam in 1919-1920

    • No one would talk to him

      • Founded French Communist Party

  • Studied in the Soviet Union

  • Launched nationalist uprisings from China in 1930s

    • French put down uprisings, killing thousands

    • Had little influence in country


Japanese acquire vietnam

JAPANESE ACQUIRE VIETNAM

  • Germans make France give Vietnam to Japan 1940

  • When obvious would lose, Japanese attacked French in Vietnam

  • U.S. supports Ho Chi Minh, who creates Viet Minh to liberate Vietnam

  • General Vo Nguyen Giap occupies Hanoi after Japanese surrender

    • Proclaims Provisional Government with Ho Chi Minh as President

  • Ho Chi Minh proclaims Democratic Republic of Vietnam – September 2, 1945


Vietnamese war against the french

VIETNAMESE WAR AGAINST THE FRENCH

  • French insist on keeping Vietnam leading to war 1946-1954

  • Ho Chi Minh controls North

  • French create puppet regime under Bao Dai, last of Nguyen emperors in South

  • War with France ends when Vietnamese devastate French troops in Battle of Dien Bien Phu - 1954


The vietnam war

THE VIETNAM WAR

  • Geneva Conference

    • U.S. originally backed Ho Chi Minh, but scared by development of Communism in Korea and China

      • “The Domino Theory”

      • Recognized French government of Bao Dai

      • Gave government $4 billion in aid 1950-1954

    • Now U.S. backed division of country at 17th Parallel

      • Ho Chi Minh controlled North

      • Ngo Dinh Diem backed by U.S. controlled the Republic of Vietnam in the South

  • Soviets and China sent material aid but no soldiers to North Vietnam

  • U.S. sent half a million soldiers to South by 1969


Defeat of south vietnam

DEFEAT OF SOUTH VIETNAM

  • South difficult to govern

    • Multiethnic

    • Divisions between Buddhists and Catholics

    • Corruption in Government

    • Ho Chi Minh sometimes popular as nationalist

  • Terrain difficult

    • U.S. dropped more tons of bombs on Vietnam than they did on Japan in World War II

    • U.S. used napalm to destroy foliage

  • Atrocities led much U.S. public opinion against war, many demonstrations

  • U.S. withdraws after much protest – 1973

    • Two years later, Saigon falls

    • Vietnam becomes Communist

    • Those who could, left

    • Vietnam communist, but moving in Capitalist direction like China

    • Still one of poorest countries in Asia


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