Lab 5 blood lymphatics and the immune response
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Lab 5 –Blood , Lymphatics and the Immune Response. Gilbert Pitts, Ph.D., Joseph Schiller, Ph.D., James F. Thompson, Ph.D. Objectives. Examine: Lymph node slide Lymphatic vessels on charts and models Blood slides

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Lab 5 blood lymphatics and the immune response

Lab 5 –Blood, Lymphatics and the Immune Response

Gilbert Pitts, Ph.D., Joseph Schiller, Ph.D., James F. Thompson, Ph.D.


Objectives
Objectives

  • Examine:

    • Lymph node slide

    • Lymphatic vessels on charts and models

    • Blood slides

      • Differentiate red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

      • Perform 2 differential WBC counts

      • Identify leukemia

      • Identify sickle cell anemia

  • Understand blood typing (ABO and Rh systems)

  • Calculate and interpret hematocrit/packed cell volume


The lymphatic system
The Lymphatic System

  • Basic organization

    • Lymph fluid in lymph vessels

    • Lymphatic organs (red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils) with smaller collections of lymphatic tissue in other organs

  • Functions

    • Return interstitial fluid and proteins to the blood

    • Transport dietary fats to adipose tissue

    • Protect against cancer & infection

  • Lymph Flow from smallest to largest:

    • Capillaries  vessels  trunks  ducts

  • Lymph vessels anastomose and supply and drain lymph nodes along their course


Lymph flow follows venous circulation
Lymph Flow Follows Venous Circulation

  • Right head, arm, and thorax drained by the right lymphatic duct into right subclavian vein

  • Left head, arm, thorax, most of the abdominal cavity and both legs drained by the thoracic duct into the left subclavian vein

R

L


The lymph node
The Lymph Node

  • Connective tissue capsule with trabeculaeextending from cortex to medulla

  • Stroma – the supportive connective tissue network of reticular fibers and fibroblasts

trabeculae

capsule


Circulation in the lymph nodes
Circulation in the Lymph Nodes

  • Lymph enters via a number of afferent lymphatic vessels

  • It then enters a large subcapsular sinus and travels into a number of smaller sinuses

  • It meanders through these sinuses and exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels

  • The node acts as a “settling tank,” because there are fewer efferent vessels, lymph stagnates somewhat in the node

    • This allows lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out their protective functions

Only lymph nodes filter lymph!

Metastasis: cancer cells from a tumor break away and flow with the lymph until trapped in the lymph nodes


Lymph node parenchyma
Lymph Node Parenchyma

  • Cortex - filled with lymphocytes and macrophages in follicles

    • Outer edge of follicle contains more T cells

    • Inner germinal center is the site of B-cell proliferation

  • Medulla - medullary cords of lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells (activated B cells)

Cortex

Medulla


Lymph node micrograph
Lymph Node Micrograph

Medulla

Cortex


Lymph node germinal centers
Lymph Node Germinal Centers

germinal centers


The formed elements of the blood
The Formed Elements of the Blood:

  • Leukocytes = White Blood Cells

    • Granular leukocytes (granulocytes)

      • neutrophils

      • eosinophils

      • basophils

    • Agranular leukocytes (agranulocytes)

      • lymphocytes - T cells, B cells

      • monocytes  tissue macrophages


Granular leukocytes

Eosinophil

2-4%

Neutrophil

60-70%

Basophil

0.5-1%

Granular Leukocytes


Agranular leukocytes

Lymphocyte

20-25%

Monocyte

3-8%

Agranular Leukocytes


Leukocyte life span and number
Leukocyte Life Span and Number

  • 5,000 - 10,000 WBC’s/mm3 blood

    • RBC/WBC ratio 700/1

  • Differential WBC count (a standard clinical lab report)

    • Neutrophils 60-70%

    • Lymphocytes 20-25%

    • Monocytes 3-8%

    • Eosinophils 2-4%

    • Basophils 0.5-1%

  • Abnormal proportions are correlated with different types of disease processes


Differential wbc count

Eosinophil

2-4%

Lymphocyte

20-25%

Monocyte

3-8%

Neutrophil

60-70%

Basophil

0.5-1%

Differential WBC Count


Leukocyte identification
Leukocyte Identification

Agranular

Granular

All have many large

granules in cytoplasm &

multilobed nuclei

Dark

Hidden nuc.

Small

Spherical nucleus

Basophil

Lymphocyte

Red gran.

Large

2+ lobes

Eosinophil

Faint gran.

Monocyte

no large

granules in

cytoplasm

Neutrophil


Composition of blood
Composition of Blood

  • Blood sample separates into 2 parts

    • plasma - straw colored liquid on top

      • ~55% of the volume

    • formed elements

      • ~45% of the volume

        • red blood cells

        • buffy coat: white blood cells and platelets


Hematocrit hct
Hematocrit (Hct)

  • Packed Cell Volume is the % of the blood which is RBC’s

    • Males: 40-54% (47%)

    • Females: 38-46% (42%)

  • Hct indicates the status of RBC production, the state of hydration, or various disease states



Blood typing
Blood Typing

  • Antigen – any substance which provokes specific immune responses

  • Antigenic determinants

    • Antigen parts which trigger the specific immune response

    • An antigen may be an entire microbe or only small structures such as subregions of large molecules

    • RBC antigens (agglutinogens) are membrane glycoproteins

Most “antigens” are complex and express multiple types of antigenic determinants.


Abo blood types
ABO Blood Types

  • 2 glycoprotein agglutinogens, A & B

  • One gene from each parent, A, B or O

  • 6 combinations - AA, AB, AO, BB, BO, OO (no agglutinogens)


Abo blood types1
ABO Blood Types

  • Agglutinins

    • Naturally occurring antibodies produced in response to the agglutinogens not present in your blood

    • React in antigen-antibody response to blood not of your type

      • blood type AB = universal recipients

      • blood type O = universal donors



Rh system
Rh System

  • Rh typing - Rhesus monkey

    • Those expressing Rh antigens are Rh+

    • Those without Rh agglutinogens are Rh-

      • Normally, blood does not contain Rh agglutinins

      • Immune system only makes agglutinins in response to specific exposure to Rh antigens

      • Rh sensitivity does not occur until second transfusion

      • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)

        • many “blue babies” prior to WWII


Hemolytic disease of the newborn erythroblastosis fetalis
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn =Erythroblastosis Fetalis



Please clean up your work area
Please Clean Up Your Work Area

  • Place only lancet and capillary tubes in designated sharps containers

  • Place all other blood contaminated materials (gloves, alcohol wipes, paper towels, etc.) in the large red biohazard bucket at the front of the room

  • Place all other discards in regular trash receptacles

  • Disinfect your work area with the spray solution after you have concluded your blood work.


Homework
Homework

  • Complete and turn in the questions on pages 5-13 to 5-15

  • Complete Assignment 5 on MasteringAandP.


End Lab 5


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