Lab 5 blood lymphatics and the immune response
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Lab 5 –Blood , Lymphatics and the Immune Response. Gilbert Pitts, Ph.D., Joseph Schiller, Ph.D., James F. Thompson, Ph.D. Objectives. Examine: Lymph node slide Lymphatic vessels on charts and models Blood slides

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Lab 5 –Blood, Lymphatics and the Immune Response

Gilbert Pitts, Ph.D., Joseph Schiller, Ph.D., James F. Thompson, Ph.D.


Objectives

  • Examine:

    • Lymph node slide

    • Lymphatic vessels on charts and models

    • Blood slides

      • Differentiate red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

      • Perform 2 differential WBC counts

      • Identify leukemia

      • Identify sickle cell anemia

  • Understand blood typing (ABO and Rh systems)

  • Calculate and interpret hematocrit/packed cell volume


The Lymphatic System

  • Basic organization

    • Lymph fluid in lymph vessels

    • Lymphatic organs (red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils) with smaller collections of lymphatic tissue in other organs

  • Functions

    • Return interstitial fluid and proteins to the blood

    • Transport dietary fats to adipose tissue

    • Protect against cancer & infection

  • Lymph Flow from smallest to largest:

    • Capillaries  vessels  trunks  ducts

  • Lymph vessels anastomose and supply and drain lymph nodes along their course


Lymph Flow Follows Venous Circulation

  • Right head, arm, and thorax drained by the right lymphatic duct into right subclavian vein

  • Left head, arm, thorax, most of the abdominal cavity and both legs drained by the thoracic duct into the left subclavian vein

R

L


The Lymph Node

  • Connective tissue capsule with trabeculaeextending from cortex to medulla

  • Stroma – the supportive connective tissue network of reticular fibers and fibroblasts

trabeculae

capsule


Circulation in the Lymph Nodes

  • Lymph enters via a number of afferent lymphatic vessels

  • It then enters a large subcapsular sinus and travels into a number of smaller sinuses

  • It meanders through these sinuses and exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels

  • The node acts as a “settling tank,” because there are fewer efferent vessels, lymph stagnates somewhat in the node

    • This allows lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out their protective functions

Only lymph nodes filter lymph!

Metastasis: cancer cells from a tumor break away and flow with the lymph until trapped in the lymph nodes


Lymph Node Parenchyma

  • Cortex - filled with lymphocytes and macrophages in follicles

    • Outer edge of follicle contains more T cells

    • Inner germinal center is the site of B-cell proliferation

  • Medulla - medullary cords of lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells (activated B cells)

Cortex

Medulla


Lymph Node Micrograph

Medulla

Cortex


Lymph Node Germinal Centers

germinal centers


The Formed Elements of the Blood:

  • Leukocytes = White Blood Cells

    • Granular leukocytes (granulocytes)

      • neutrophils

      • eosinophils

      • basophils

    • Agranular leukocytes (agranulocytes)

      • lymphocytes - T cells, B cells

      • monocytes  tissue macrophages


Eosinophil

2-4%

Neutrophil

60-70%

Basophil

0.5-1%

Granular Leukocytes


Lymphocyte

20-25%

Monocyte

3-8%

Agranular Leukocytes


Leukocyte Life Span and Number

  • 5,000 - 10,000 WBC’s/mm3 blood

    • RBC/WBC ratio 700/1

  • Differential WBC count (a standard clinical lab report)

    • Neutrophils 60-70%

    • Lymphocytes 20-25%

    • Monocytes 3-8%

    • Eosinophils 2-4%

    • Basophils 0.5-1%

  • Abnormal proportions are correlated with different types of disease processes


Eosinophil

2-4%

Lymphocyte

20-25%

Monocyte

3-8%

Neutrophil

60-70%

Basophil

0.5-1%

Differential WBC Count


Leukocyte Identification

Agranular

Granular

All have many large

granules in cytoplasm &

multilobed nuclei

Dark

Hidden nuc.

Small

Spherical nucleus

Basophil

Lymphocyte

Red gran.

Large

2+ lobes

Eosinophil

Faint gran.

Monocyte

no large

granules in

cytoplasm

Neutrophil


Composition of Blood

  • Blood sample separates into 2 parts

    • plasma - straw colored liquid on top

      • ~55% of the volume

    • formed elements

      • ~45% of the volume

        • red blood cells

        • buffy coat: white blood cells and platelets


Hematocrit (Hct)

  • Packed Cell Volume is the % of the blood which is RBC’s

    • Males: 40-54% (47%)

    • Females: 38-46% (42%)

  • Hct indicates the status of RBC production, the state of hydration, or various disease states


Hematocrit Procedure


Blood Typing

  • Antigen – any substance which provokes specific immune responses

  • Antigenic determinants

    • Antigen parts which trigger the specific immune response

    • An antigen may be an entire microbe or only small structures such as subregions of large molecules

    • RBC antigens (agglutinogens) are membrane glycoproteins

Most “antigens” are complex and express multiple types of antigenic determinants.


ABO Blood Types

  • 2 glycoprotein agglutinogens, A & B

  • One gene from each parent, A, B or O

  • 6 combinations - AA, AB, AO, BB, BO, OO (no agglutinogens)


ABO Blood Types

  • Agglutinins

    • Naturally occurring antibodies produced in response to the agglutinogens not present in your blood

    • React in antigen-antibody response to blood not of your type

      • blood type AB = universal recipients

      • blood type O = universal donors


ABO System


Rh System

  • Rh typing - Rhesus monkey

    • Those expressing Rh antigens are Rh+

    • Those without Rh agglutinogens are Rh-

      • Normally, blood does not contain Rh agglutinins

      • Immune system only makes agglutinins in response to specific exposure to Rh antigens

      • Rh sensitivity does not occur until second transfusion

      • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)

        • many “blue babies” prior to WWII


Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn =Erythroblastosis Fetalis


Perform Fingerstick and Transfer Blood


Please Clean Up Your Work Area

  • Place only lancet and capillary tubes in designated sharps containers

  • Place all other blood contaminated materials (gloves, alcohol wipes, paper towels, etc.) in the large red biohazard bucket at the front of the room

  • Place all other discards in regular trash receptacles

  • Disinfect your work area with the spray solution after you have concluded your blood work.


Homework

  • Complete and turn in the questions on pages 5-13 to 5-15

  • Complete Assignment 5 on MasteringAandP.


End Lab 5


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