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Microprocessor and Interfacing 261214. Introduction to Microprocessors II. http://mango.e-cpe.org. What is this?. Liquid Nitrogen. Gigabyte 2009 Overclock Champion. 3.3 GHz --> 5.3 GHz. 2010 – When Overclocking goes beyond the CPU. The Winner. What Makes a CPU Hot?. Clock Frequency

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microprocessor and interfacing 261214

Microprocessor and Interfacing261214

Introduction to Microprocessors II

http://mango.e-cpe.org

what makes a cpu hot
What Makes a CPU Hot?
  • Clock Frequency
  • Transistor Size
pentium hack
Pentium Hack

Done by former Motorola Engineers (makers of chips for MACs back in the day)

moore s law 1965
Moore’s Law (1965)

“Thenumberoftransistors on a chip willdoubleabout everytwo years.”

the next 20 years
The Next 20 Years

Transistor Count (Billion)

Year

why more transistors
Why more transistors?

Pentium

Core i7

transistor usage
Transistor Usage
  • Larger Cache
    • Core i7 has up to 12Mb L3 Cache (6 Core CPUs)
  • More Cores
    • Core i7 has up to 6 CPU cores
    • Other core types, such as GPUs
  • More Complex CPU Features
    • Extended SIMD Instruction Set (MMX, SSE, etc)
    • Advanced Optimizations (Branch Prediction, OoOE, etc)
1 all cpus are not created equal
1. All CPUs are NOT Created Equal

Pipeline Example: 10 Stages vs 20 Stages

10 Clock Cycle per 1 instruction

20 Clock Cycle per 1 instruction

how does the program data flow
How does the program data flow?

Hello.exe

Printf(“Hello World”);

execution data flow
Execution Data flow

CPU

RAM

Hello.exe

Chipset

HDD

GPU(Display)

slide26

6.4 GB/s

8.5 GB/s

slide29

GPU(If Integrated)

RAM

CPU

Hello.exe

Chipset

HDD

GPU(If Discrete)

component speeds
Component Speeds
  • RAM
    • DDR2 - 4.2 GB/s
    • DDR3 (1066) - 8.4 GB/s
    • DDR3 (1600) – 12.5 GB/s
  • Hard Drive
    • SATA1 – 150 MB/s
    • SATA2 – 300 MB/s
    • SATA3 – 600 MB/s
conclusions cpu
Conclusions:วิธีต่างๆ ในการเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพของ CPU
  • เพิ่มความเร็วสัญญาณนาฬิกา
    • ต้องระวังความร้อน
    • ยิ่งผลิตขนาด CPU เล็กก็จะยิ่งกินไฟน้อย
  • เพิ่มจำนวน transistor เพื่อใส่ความาสามารถใหม่ๆ
  • ลดคอขวดในระบบโดยการเพิ่มความเร็วส่วนประกอบต่างๆ ให้ไม่ทิ้งห่าง CPU จนเกินไป
  • ใช้ Cache และเทคนิคอื่นๆ เพื่อลดการใช้งาน ส่วนประกอบที่ช้า
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