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Microprocessor and Interfacing 261214. Introduction to Microprocessors II. http://mango.e-cpe.org. What is this?. Liquid Nitrogen. Gigabyte 2009 Overclock Champion. 3.3 GHz --> 5.3 GHz. 2010 – When Overclocking goes beyond the CPU. The Winner. What Makes a CPU Hot?. Clock Frequency

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Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

Microprocessor and Interfacing261214

Introduction to Microprocessors II

http://mango.e-cpe.org





2010 when overclocking goes beyond the cpu
2010 – When Overclocking goes beyond the CPU



What makes a cpu hot
What Makes a CPU Hot?

  • Clock Frequency

  • Transistor Size






Pentium hack
Pentium Hack

Done by former Motorola Engineers (makers of chips for MACs back in the day)




Moore s law 1965
Moore’s Law (1965)

“Thenumberoftransistors on a chip willdoubleabout everytwo years.”



The next 20 years
The Next 20 Years

Transistor Count (Billion)

Year


Why more transistors
Why more transistors?

Pentium

Core i7


Transistor usage
Transistor Usage

  • Larger Cache

    • Core i7 has up to 12Mb L3 Cache (6 Core CPUs)

  • More Cores

    • Core i7 has up to 6 CPU cores

    • Other core types, such as GPUs

  • More Complex CPU Features

    • Extended SIMD Instruction Set (MMX, SSE, etc)

    • Advanced Optimizations (Branch Prediction, OoOE, etc)



1 all cpus are not created equal
1. All CPUs are NOT Created Equal

Pipeline Example: 10 Stages vs 20 Stages

10 Clock Cycle per 1 instruction

20 Clock Cycle per 1 instruction



How does the program data flow
How does the program data flow? slowest component

Hello.exe

Printf(“Hello World”);


Execution data flow
Execution Data flow slowest component

CPU

RAM

Hello.exe

Chipset

HDD

GPU(Display)


6.4 GB/s slowest component

8.5 GB/s


What is a Bottleneck? slowest component


25.6 GB/s slowest component


GPU(If Integrated slowest component)

RAM

CPU

Hello.exe

Chipset

HDD

GPU(If Discrete)


Component speeds
Component Speeds slowest component

  • RAM

    • DDR2 - 4.2 GB/s

    • DDR3 (1066) - 8.4 GB/s

    • DDR3 (1600) – 12.5 GB/s

  • Hard Drive

    • SATA1 – 150 MB/s

    • SATA2 – 300 MB/s

    • SATA3 – 600 MB/s


Conclusions cpu
Conclusions: slowest componentวิธีต่างๆ ในการเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพของ CPU

  • เพิ่มความเร็วสัญญาณนาฬิกา

    • ต้องระวังความร้อน

    • ยิ่งผลิตขนาด CPU เล็กก็จะยิ่งกินไฟน้อย

  • เพิ่มจำนวน transistor เพื่อใส่ความาสามารถใหม่ๆ

  • ลดคอขวดในระบบโดยการเพิ่มความเร็วส่วนประกอบต่างๆ ให้ไม่ทิ้งห่าง CPU จนเกินไป

  • ใช้ Cache และเทคนิคอื่นๆ เพื่อลดการใช้งาน ส่วนประกอบที่ช้า


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