Microprocessor and interfacing 261214
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Microprocessor and Interfacing 261214. Introduction to Microprocessors II. http://mango.e-cpe.org. What is this?. Liquid Nitrogen. Gigabyte 2009 Overclock Champion. 3.3 GHz --> 5.3 GHz. 2010 – When Overclocking goes beyond the CPU. The Winner. What Makes a CPU Hot?. Clock Frequency

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Microprocessor and Interfacing 261214

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Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

Microprocessor and Interfacing261214

Introduction to Microprocessors II

http://mango.e-cpe.org


Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

What is this?


Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

Liquid Nitrogen


Gigabyte 2009 overclock champion

Gigabyte 2009 Overclock Champion

3.3 GHz --> 5.3 GHz


2010 when overclocking goes beyond the cpu

2010 – When Overclocking goes beyond the CPU


The winner

The Winner


What makes a cpu hot

What Makes a CPU Hot?

  • Clock Frequency

  • Transistor Size


How does a cpu s transistor look like

How does a CPU’s transistor look like ?


Regular microscope

Regular Microscope


Scanning electron microscope

Scanning Electron Microscope


A single transistor

A Single Transistor


Pentium hack

Pentium Hack

Done by former Motorola Engineers (makers of chips for MACs back in the day)


Processor fabrication technology

Processor Fabrication Technology

1997

2008

2011


Pentium 2 slot footprint

Pentium 2 – Slot Footprint


Moore s law 1965

Moore’s Law (1965)

“Thenumberoftransistors on a chip willdoubleabout everytwo years.”


Moore s law true for 40 years

Moore’s Law True for 40 Years


The next 20 years

The Next 20 Years

Transistor Count (Billion)

Year


Why more transistors

Why more transistors?

Pentium

Core i7


Transistor usage

Transistor Usage

  • Larger Cache

    • Core i7 has up to 12Mb L3 Cache (6 Core CPUs)

  • More Cores

    • Core i7 has up to 6 CPU cores

    • Other core types, such as GPUs

  • More Complex CPU Features

    • Extended SIMD Instruction Set (MMX, SSE, etc)

    • Advanced Optimizations (Branch Prediction, OoOE, etc)


System performance is more than cpu speed

System Performance is More than CPU Speed


1 all cpus are not created equal

1. All CPUs are NOT Created Equal

Pipeline Example: 10 Stages vs 20 Stages

10 Clock Cycle per 1 instruction

20 Clock Cycle per 1 instruction


2 the overall speed of a system is determined by the slowest component

2. The overall speed of a system is determined by the slowest component


How does the program data flow

How does the program data flow?

Hello.exe

Printf(“Hello World”);


Execution data flow

Execution Data flow

CPU

RAM

Hello.exe

Chipset

HDD

GPU(Display)


Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

6.4 GB/s

8.5 GB/s


Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

What is a Bottleneck?


Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

25.6 GB/s


Microprocessor and interfacing 261214

GPU(If Integrated)

RAM

CPU

Hello.exe

Chipset

HDD

GPU(If Discrete)


Component speeds

Component Speeds

  • RAM

    • DDR2 - 4.2 GB/s

    • DDR3 (1066) - 8.4 GB/s

    • DDR3 (1600) – 12.5 GB/s

  • Hard Drive

    • SATA1 – 150 MB/s

    • SATA2 – 300 MB/s

    • SATA3 – 600 MB/s


Conclusions cpu

Conclusions:วิธีต่างๆ ในการเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพของ CPU

  • เพิ่มความเร็วสัญญาณนาฬิกา

    • ต้องระวังความร้อน

    • ยิ่งผลิตขนาด CPU เล็กก็จะยิ่งกินไฟน้อย

  • เพิ่มจำนวน transistor เพื่อใส่ความาสามารถใหม่ๆ

  • ลดคอขวดในระบบโดยการเพิ่มความเร็วส่วนประกอบต่างๆ ให้ไม่ทิ้งห่าง CPU จนเกินไป

  • ใช้ Cache และเทคนิคอื่นๆ เพื่อลดการใช้งาน ส่วนประกอบที่ช้า


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