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Skeletal System
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Skeletal System. Functions. Support: body structure and shape Protection: vital organs surrounded Movement/Anchorage of Muscles Mineral Storage: calcium & phosphorus Blood Formation. Formation and structure.

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Skeletal System

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Skeletal system

Skeletal System



  • Support: body structure and shape

  • Protection: vital organs surrounded

  • Movement/Anchorage of Muscles

  • Mineral Storage: calcium & phosphorus

  • Blood Formation

Formation and structure

Formation and structure

  • Composed of connective tissue called osseous tissue and rich supply of blood vessels and nerves

  • Osseous tissue is composed of : _______________

Bone formation

Bone Formation

  • Skeleton fully formed by 2nd month of fetal development (all cartilage)

  • Ossification (replacement of cartilage with bone cells and calcium salts) begins after 8th week of fetal development

  • Childhood and adolescence: ossification ______ bone loss

  • Early adulthood through middle age: ossification ______ bone loss

  • After age 35: bone loss _______ ossification

Bone formation ossification

Bone Formation/Ossification

Ossification: replacement of cartilage with bone

  • Cells:

    • osteoblast: produce immature bony tissue that replaces cartilage (the “builders”)

    • osteocyte: nourishes and maintains bone

    • osteoclast: reabsorb or digest bone (the “remodelers”)

    • Osteoblasts and osteoclasts work to deposit and tear down bone throughout life

Bone growth

Bone Growth

  • Grow in length at the epiphyseal line

  • Grow in width by addition of bone to the surface

  • Controlled by anterior pituitary (GH)

Bone composition

Bone Composition

  • Proper formation of bone depends on sources of calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D.

  • Vit. D helps with absorption of ________

  • Once Calcium and phosphorous are in the blood osteoblastic activity forms the enzyme Calcium phosphate

  • Calcium phosphate: gives bone its characteristic _________________

  • Collagen: chief organic constituent (protein)

Bones cont d

Bones (cont’d.)

  • Bone is the reservoir for calcium storage

  • Calcium necessary for nerve transmittal to muscle When insufficient, it interferes with nerve transmission causing muscle weakness and spasms

  • Ca level maintained by the _______________, which secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone

Types of bones based on composition

Types of Bones Based on Composition

  • Compact

  • Cancellous

Compact bone cortical

Compact Bone (Cortical)

  • Dense, Stress Bearing

  • Haversian Systems: system of small canals which contain blood vessels that bring _____and _____ to bone and remove waste products

  • Medullary cavity: central shaft of long bone composed of _______ marrow (stores fat cells)

Cancellous bone spongy trabecular

CancellousBone (spongy/trabecular)

  • Light, spongy

  • Found at ____________, ribs, sternum, hips, vertebrae, cranium spaces

  • Contain red bone marrow with elements for blood formation

Bone markings purpose

Bone Markings - Purpose

  • Join one bone to another

  • Provide a surface for attachment of muscles

  • Create an opening for passage of blood vessels and nerves

  • Use as landmarks

Major types of bone markings

Major types of Bone Markings

•Processes/Projections: serve as attachments for muscles and tendons

  • Depressions: openings or hollow regions help join bones or serve as passageways __________________

  • Ridges - ____________________

Bone processes and depressions cont d

Bone Processes and Depressions (cont’d.)

Bones by shapes

Bones by Shapes

Reference: Gerdin, Judith. Health Careers Today. 3rd edition. Mosby, 2003

Long bones

Extremities (Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, radius, clavicle

Act as ______

Epiphysis: at the _____; covered with hyaline cartilage for articulating bones (provides ______); cancellous bone

Epiphyseal line or plate: growth plate

Diaphysis: shaft, covered with periosteum, contains ______bone marrow

Medullary cavity – located in the shaft of a long bone. This cavity is surrounded by compact bone and lined with endosteum and contains _______ bone marrow

Metaphysis: flared portion of the bone

Long Bones



  • Dense, fibrous membrane covering bone

  • Contains blood vessels

  • Essential for bone cell survival and bone formation

Bone structure cont d

Bone Structure (cont’d.)

(A) Divisions of a long bone and interior structure

(B) composition of compact (cortical) bone

Short bones

Short Bones

  • _____-shaped

  • Allows ____________

  • Cancellous bone covered by compact bone

  • Carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

Flat bones

Flat Bones

  • Flat plates

  • Protect ____________

  • Provide broad surface area for attachment of ________

  • Cranial bones, Facial bones, Scapula, Sternum

Irregular bones

Irregular Bones

  • Peculiarly shaped to provide support and protection with ____________

  • Vertebrae, Ribs, Ear, Hip, Hyoid

  • Includes Sesamoid bones

Sesamoid bones

Sesamoid Bones

  • Extra bones found around ________i.e. Patella



  • Smooth, rubbery, white connective tissue

  • Acts as a _____________ between bones

  • Makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton as well as the ____________________

    • ___________– covers the surfaces of the bones that form joints

    • __________– curved, fibrous cartilage found in some joints (knee and jaw)



  • _________ – jagged lines where bones joint that does not move (top of an adult’s skull – coronal /Sagittal sutures)

  • __________ –Cartilaginous joint –2 bones join and are held firmly together; function as one (pelvic symphyses)

  • ______________– movable

    • Ball and socket (hip)

    • Hinge (knee, elbow)

Structures of synovial joint




  • Closed sacks of synovial fluid with a synovial membrane located near, but not within a joint. Needed where sliding must take place

  • Common sites:

    • between tendons (connective tissue connecting muscle to bone) and bones

    • between ligaments (binding bone to bone) and bone

    • between skin and bones (with prominent bony anatomy)



Bones of the body

Bones of the Body




    • Skull

    • Spinal Column

    • Ribs

    • Sternum


    • Upper extremities

    • Lower extremities

Skull cranium

Skull - Cranium

  • Houses and protects the brain

  • _______: forms forehead

  • ________: forms roof of nasal cavity

  • _______right & left; form sides and roof of skull

  • ________: right & left; forms temple, cheek, ear openings

Skeletal system

  • _______: back of skull; inferior portion has foramen magnum (opening for spinal cord) and 2 condyles to articulate with atlas

  • _________: fills space between orbital plates; depression called sella turcica holds the pituitary gland; bat shaped

Cranial sutures

Cranial Sutures

  • Unite the bones of the cranium

  • As the child grow, irregular bands of connective tissue ossifies and turns into hard bone



  • _________Suture: between the frontal and parietal bones

  • _________ Suture: between right and left parietal bones

  • ________Suture: between the parietal and occipital bones

  • _________ Suture: between temporal and parietal bones



  • Fusion of the cranial bones is not complete at birth

  • Space between the bones remains

  • Anterior (Bregmatic): “soft spot”, closes at ___months

  • Posterior (Occipital): triangular, closes at _____ months

Bones of the face


Facial bones continued

Facial Bones Continued

  • ______ (2): cheek bones

  • ______ (2): small bones form medial wall of each eye socket

  • _______ (2): forms back roof of mouth and floor of nose

  • ________(2): forms curved ledge inside side wall of nose

Ear bones

Ear Bones

  • Malleus (2): the hammer

  • Incus (2): the anvil

  • Stapes (2): the stirrup

Hyoid bone

Hyoid Bone

  • U-shaped bone

  • In neck

  • At base of tongue

  • Only bone in body that does NOT articulate with another bone

Spinal vertebral column


  • 26 Vertebrae

  • Five divisions

    • C1 to C7 = Cervical

    • T1-T12 = Thoracic

    • L1-L5 = Lumbar

    • Sacrum (5 bones fuse when young)

    • Coccyx (4 bones fused together)



  • Supports trunk and _____.

  • Protects ____________

  • Multiple joint spaces allow for ______ and twisting

Bones of the thoracic cavity


  • RIBS – 12 pairs, called ______ (first 7 = true, RIBS 8-12 = false ribs;

    last 2 pairs = floating)

  • _________– breast bone

    • Manubrium

    • Body

    • Xiphoid process (cartilage)



  • Protect and support heart and ______

  • Supports bones of pectoral girdle

  • Plays leading role in ________

  • Ribs and sternum aid in RBC formation

Appendicular skeleton 126 bones

Appendicular Skeleton – 126 Bones

Shoulder girdle

Shoulder Girdle

  • Clavicles (2): collar bones

  • ________(2): shoulder blades

  • Acromion: extension of the scapula/high pt

Upper extremities

Upper Extremities

  • Humerus: ____________

  • Radius: _____side of forearm

  • ______: little finger side of forearm

  • Olecranon process (funny bone)

Wrists and hands


  • Carpals (8) = ______

  • Metacarpals (5) = _______________

  • ______ (14) = fingers

    • Distal

    • Medial

    • Proximal

Pelvic girdle

Os Coxae (2): contains the acetabulum (hip socket)

3 components:

_________ – upper blade of the pelvic girdle

Sacroiliac – slightly moveable articulation betw. sacrum and ilium

Ischium – ______, posterior portion

Also, contains the sacrum


Lower extremities


  • Femur: ________

  • Patella: kneecap

  • Tibia: _________

  • Fibula: lateral bone of lower leg

Ankles and feet


Common skeletal bones

Common Skeletal Bones

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