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PRIMARY SOURCES. A primary source gives the words of the witnesses or the first recorders of an event. STANDARDS. The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively. The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently.

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PRIMARY SOURCES

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Primary sources

PRIMARY SOURCES

A primary source gives the words of the witnesses or the first recorders of an event.


Standards

STANDARDS

  • The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively.

  • The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently.

  • The student who is an independent learner is information literate and pursues information related to personal interests.

  • The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation.

  • The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society.

  • The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology.

  • The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information.

  • E/LA 4-Rs2.2 & 5-RS2.2 Demonstrate the ability to gather and organize information from a variety of sources, including those accessed through the use of technology.

  • Social studies standards suggest use of primary source materials to document statistics, discuss lives, etc.

  • And etc. in all curriculums.


Historical documents

HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

  • Historical documents include laws, constitutions, speeches, and many government documents including census documents and other statistical information.


Rough draught declaration of independence

Rough Draught, Declaration of Independence

  • This is the original rough draught (draft) written by Thomas Jefferson, with recommendations by Benjamin Franklin.

  • This rough draught went through several edits before the final copy was arrived at on July 4, 1776.

  • http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trt001.html


The gettysburg address

The Gettysburg Address

  • Abraham Lincoln wrote several drafts of the address he was to give at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg.

  • This copy is thought to be the copy he read from at the ceremony on November 19, 1863.

  • http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/gadrft.html


Bill of rights and amendments to the united states constitution

Bill of Rights and Amendments to the United States Constitution


Diaries

DIARIES

  • A diary is simply a daily record of events. “Many are terse and practical, containing little more than records of expenditures, miles traveled, and the quality of the forage or availability of good water on a given day. Others are quite expressive...”

    End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center.http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/mambo/ 10/2006


Oregon trail diary

Oregon Trail Diary

  • Diary of a Trip to Oregon 1852

  • Abigail Jane Scott

  • June 29 - We came twenty miles. We struck the Sweet water about two o'clock and about three came to Independence rock; The Sweet water is about one hundred feet in width; The water is clear and palatable but is warmer during the day than water of the Platte. Independence rock is an immense mass covering an area of, I think about ten acres, and is about three hundred feet high; My sisters and I went to the base of the rock with the intention of climbing it but a we had only ascended about thirty feet when a heavy hail and wind storm arose obliging us to desist; We then started on after the wagons and before we reached them they had all crossed the river except the last to overtake.

  • End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center.http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/mambo/ 10/2006


George washington s diary

George Washington’s Diary

  • George Washington kept a diary from 1748 until his death in 1799.

  • As general and as president, Washington recorded the weather in his diary.

  • He also recorded highlights from his day.

  • See also - The Diaries of George Washington. 6 vols. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976-79.


Journals

JOURNALS

  • “A journal is usually written in on a more irregular schedule to record events which struck the writer as significant or interesting. Journals have a certain element of storytelling in them which diaries often lack...”

  • End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center.http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/mambo/ 10/2006


Oregon trail journal

Oregon Trail Journal

  • The Running Commentaries of Keturah Belknap1839 - 1848

  • Just as we were ready to sit down to supper Joe Meek and his posse of men rode into camp. They were going to Washington, D. C. to get the government to send soldiers to protect the settlers in Oregon and they told us all about the Indian Massacre at Walla Walla called the "Whitman Massacre". They had traveled all winter and some of their men had died and they had got out of food and had to eat mule meat so we gave them all their supper and breakfast. The captain divided them up so all could help feed them.

End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center.http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/mambo/ 10/2006


Telegrams

TELEGRAMS

  • Telegrams could be sent by telephoning the local telegraph office or by stopping by and filling out a form. The message would be coded at the telegraph office.

  • Telegraphs would be sent over the wires by Morse code and decoded at the receiving end. Messenger boys would then deliver the telegrams to the homes or businesses.

  • Telegrams were almost always brief, pointed, and momentous in a way unmatched by any other form of communication.


To president franklin roosevelt

To President Franklin Roosevelt

Naval dispatch from the Commander in Chief Pacific (CINCPAC) announcing the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.(John J. Ballentine Papers

http://memory.loc.gov


Letters

LETTERS

  • Letters have been sent back and forth between people over the centuries.

  • Letters are a record of daily life, of plans to be made, of plans to be carried out, and a record of events witnessed.

  • Family letters are also important as we look back at daily life in times past.

  • Letters between government or military leaders are often used by researchers when writing biographies or books about historical eras.


3 july 1863 a battlefield letter

3 July 1863, a Battlefield Letter

Letter, Gen. James Longstreet to Col. Edward P. Alexander; and copies of Alexander's battlefield dispatches to Longstreet and Gen. George E. Pickett during the battle of Gettysburg, 3 July 1863.(Edward P. Alexander Papers)

http://www.loc.gov/ 10/16/06


From dr bell

From Dr. Bell

  • Alexander Graham Bell wrote this letter to Miss Mabel Hubbard.

  • In it, Dr. Bell tells about his encounter on the train with a Dr. and Mrs. Marsh.

  • He then goes on to write about the women’s suffrage issue and wonders what is next – a woman for president?


Primary sources

MAPS

  • Maps are made for many reasons including surveys of property, recording the physical characteristics of an area, insurance purposes, and population.


An indian map of the southeast ca 1721

An Indian Map of the Southeast, ca.1721

"A Map Describing the Situation of the Several Nations of Indians between South Carolina and the Mississippi River". In Archer Butler Hulbert, The Crown Collection of Photographs of American Maps (Washington, 1873), series 3, volume 1, plates 7-8. Newberry Library call number: Ayer 136 H91 1914, vol. 1


Primary sources

Washington’s Survey Map This map, covers the area immediately north of Mount Vernon that Washington purchased from William Clifton in 1760.

Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress


Google earth

Google Earth

  • The Grand Strand, a satellite view, 28 October 2006


Newspaper and e news articles

NEWSPAPER and e-NEWS ARTICLES

  • Newspaper articles have been, until recently, the most up-to-date and easily available source of published accounts of events, both local and global.

  • E-News is found via the Internet on web sites and offer up-to-the-minute news on global events.


Earthquake devastates san francisco

Earthquake Devastates San Francisco

http://www.frontpagearchive.com/

10/15/06


Primary sources

E-News - Quake in Hawaii


Images

IMAGES

  • Images include pictures: drawings, prints, and photographs; films: movies and videos; recorded by eyewitnesses.


Occupational groups

Occupational Groups

  • The Relación is a well- illustrated manuscript from Mexico that chronicles the history and customs of the Tarascan people before as well as during the Spanish conquest in the area of Michoacán, Mexico. Ca. 1540.

  • Relacion

Peter Force Collection, Manuscript Division Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540


News from the war a wood engraving from a drawing

News from the War(a wood engraving from a drawing)

  • Winslow Homer was an artist who drew many pictures of the action during the Civil War. He sent his drawings to newspapers and magazines. The pictures were turned into engravings or lithographs and published.

  • News from the War

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 Wood engraving from drawing by WinslowHomer. Illus. in: Harper's Weekly, v. 6, (1862 June 14), p. 377.


Sketches patents

Sketches & Patents

  • UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

  • Alexander Graham Bell of Boston, Massachusetts

  • Improvement in Electric Telegraphy

  • Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 186,787, dated January 30, 1877, application filed January 15, 1877.

  • To whom it may concern:

  • Be it known that I , Alexander Graham Bell, of Boston, Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electric Telephony, of which the following is a specification:

  • In Letters Patent granted to me on the 6th day of April, 1875, No. 161,739, and in an application for Letters Patent of the United States now pending, I have described a method of and apparatus for producing musical tones by the action of a rapidly-interrupted electrical current, whereby a number of telegraphic signals can be sent simultaneously along a single circuit.

  • In another application for Letters Patent now pending in the United States Patent Office I have described a method of and apparatus for inducing an intermittent current of electricity upon a line-wire, whereby musical tones can be produced and a number of telegraphic signals be sent simultaneously over the same circuit, in either or in both directions; and in Letters Patent granted to me March 7, 1876, No. 174, 465, I have shown and described a method of and apparatus for producing musical tones by the action of undulatory currents of electricity, whereby a number of telegraphic signals can be sent simultaneously over the same circuit, in either or in both directions, and a single battery be used for the whole circuit.


Dorothea lange photographer of the great depression

Dorothea Lange, Photographer of the Great Depression

Digital ID: fsa 8b29516   Source: b&w digital file from nitrate neg. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-fsa-8b29516 (b&w digital file from nitrate neg.) , LC-USF34-T01-009058-C (b&w film dup. neg.) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540


Hindenburg disaster

Hindenburg Disaster

Hindenburg Disaster - 1937Video Encyclopedia of the 20th Century, 1937. 1 min. 6 sec.


Editorials editorial political cartoons

EDITORIALS & EDITORIAL (POLITICAL) CARTOONS

  • Editorials are short articles, written to express opinions about issues, events, or politics.

  • “Editorial cartoons are signed, personal opinions of their creators, similar to a text editorial.”

  • “Editorial cartoons are created to make a comment about a current event. Their purpose is not entertainment or humor.”

  • http://cartoons.osu.edu/nast/teach1.htm


Thomas nast

Thomas Nast

  • “What Are You Laughing At? To the Victor Belong the Spoils”

  • Cartoon shows “Boss Tweed” in charge of an organization (Tammany Hall) that is losing ground due to a campaign waged by the New York Times and Harper’s Weekly against the corrupt officials of New York City.


Harry truman planned his shots well in korea and the cold war

Harry Truman Planned His Shots Well in Korea and the Cold War

  • Section: Editorial “A brief mention in the May issue's ‘Legacy of Flight’ of the fact that President Harry S. Truman chose not to drop the atomic bomb during the Korean War, which he had chosen to do during World War II, brought back memories and some reflections about a controversial commander in chief…

  • Over the years, my respect for Truman's straightforwardness in manner and actions has grown, whether I agree with his politics or not. What I believe drove him were solid basic principles and a very strong sense of national and international responsibility.

  • There have been times I have said we need another Harry Truman for those qualities. I wonder if our new president, George W. Bush, plays pool--I hope so, for so far he seems already to be applying some of its techniques.”

  • ~~~~~~~~

  • By A.H.S. July 2001


Oral histories

ORAL HISTORIES

  • An oral history is verbally transmitted information about past events. Oral histories often provide us information about non-historic events and can sometimes be clouded by the passage of time.

  • Oral histories may be tape recorded, video recorded, or may be written accounts of interviews (transcripts.)


Fountain hughes age 101

Fountain Hughes, Age 101

  • "You wasn't no more than a dog to some of them in them days. You wasn't treated as good as they treat dogs now. But still I didn't like to talk about it. Because it makes, makes people feel bad you know. Uh, I, I could say a whole lot I don't like to say. And I won't say a whole lot more."Read or listen to the rest of the narrative... On the Library of Congress web site.


Onto rugged shores voyage of lst534

Onto Rugged Shores : Voyage of LST534

“Looking Back : the Crew of the LST534 Discuss the Meaning of Their Experience”


Emails text messages instant messages blogs wikis

EMAILS, TEXT MESSAGES, INSTANT MESSAGES, BLOGS, & WIKIS

  • The new technologies may also be the new primary documents that your grandchildren will study.

  • We study telegrams, early prints and photographs, realia (objects), film, maps, and so many other primary resources.

  • What will we add in the future?


Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Onto Rugged Shores: Voyage of LST534. United Learning. 1999.unitedstreaming. 17 October 2006<http://www.unitedstreaming.com/>

  • Voices from the Days of Slavery. Library of Congress. 1949. 17 October 2006 http://memory.loc.gov

  • End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center. 2005. 15 October 2006. http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/mambo/

  • "Thomas Nast." 2002. Ohio State University. 19 Oct 2006 <http://cartoons.osu.edu/nast/index.htm>.

  • "American Memory." The Alexander Graham Bell Papers. Library of Congress. 28 Oct 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/bellhtml/bellhome.html>.


Bibliography cont

BIBLIOGRAPHY, cont.

  • Hawaiian: 'We were rocking and rolling'. 16 Oct. 2006. Cable News Network LP, LLLP.. 19 Oct 2006 <http://www.cnn.com/2006/US/10/15/hawaii.quake/index.html>.

  • "Hindenburg Disaster, 1937." Video Encyclopedia of the 20th Century EBSCO. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=vih&AN=0375>.

  • "Prints & Photographs Reading Room." Dorothea Lange's "Migrant Mother" Photographs in the Farm Security Administration Collection. Library of Congress. 28 Oct 2006 <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/128_migm.html>.

  • "Historic Maps in the K-12 Classroom." An Indian Map of the Southeast, ca.1721. Newberry Library. 15 Oct 2006 <http://www.newberry.org/k12maps/module_02/map/catawba_core.html>.


Bibliography cont1

BIBLIOGRAPHY, cont.

  • Homer, Winslow. "Prints & Photographs Division." News from the War. Library of Congress. 15 Oct 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3a00000/3a03000/3a03700/3a03779r.jpg>.

  • "Hispanic and Portuguese Collections." The Hispanic and Portuguese World : Encounters in America. Library of Congress. 15 Oct 2006 <http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/guide/encameri.html>.

  • "Front Page Newspaper Archive." Oakland Tribune. 1906. Newspaper Archive. 15 Oct 2006 <http://www.frontpagearchive.com>.

  • "American Memory." A Plan of Mr. Clifton's Neck. 1760. Library of Congress. 15 Oct 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/gmd:@field([email protected](g3882m+ct000473v))>.


Bibliography cont2

BIBLIOGRAPHY, cont.

  • "United States Patent and Trademark Office." Patent 186,787. 28 Oct 2006 <http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html>.

  • "American Memory." Words and Deeds in American History: Selected Documents Celebrating the Manuscript Division's First 100 Years . Library of Congress. 15 Oct 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mcc&fileName=001/page.db&recNum=0>.

  • "American Memory." Words and Deeds in American History: Selected Documents Celebrating the Manuscript Division's First 100 Years . Library of Congress. 15 Oct 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mcc&fileName=002/page.db&recNum=0>.

  • "Our Documents." National Archives. 28 Oct 2006 <http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=63>.

  • "Google Maps." Myrtle Beach. Google Imagery. 28 Oct 2006 <http://www.google.com/maps>.

  • Dutch, Steven. "Independence Rock, Wyoming." Independence Rock, Wyoming. 2002. U Wisconsin. 19 Mar 2007 <http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/projects/geoweb/participants/dutch/VTrips/IndepRock.HTM>.


Bibliography cont3

BIBLIOGRAPHY, cont.

  • Washington, George. "American Memory." George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: The Diaries of George Washington.. Library of Congress. 28 Oct 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw1&fileName=mgw1b/gwpage991.db&recNum=3 >.

  • "Harry Truman Planned His Shots Well in Korea and the Cold War." History Reference Center 07/2001. EBSCO. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=4428748&site=srck5-live>.

  • "American Treasures of the Library of Congress." Original Rough Draught of the Declaration of Independence. 176. Library of Congress. 28 Oct 2006 <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/uc004215.jpg>.

  • Lincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg Address. 11/19/1863. Library of Congress. 28 Oct 2006 <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/images/frstdrt1.jpg>.


Graffiti

Graffiti

  • Graffiti are drawings or inscriptions made on a wall or other surface, usually so as to be seen by the public.

  • Graffiti have existed at least since the ancient Greeks and Romans.

  • This inscription can be found on Independence Rock, a stop on the Oregon Trail.

  • Independence Rock, Wyoming


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