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Chapter 8: The Progressive Era. Chapter 8 The Progressive Era. Reform. “ ations ” Industrialization/urbanization/immigration Progressivism- Reform Movement Who? Members of all political parties, social classes, ethnic groups and religions

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Chapter 8 the progressive era

Chapter 8: The Progressive Era

Chapter 8

The Progressive Era


  • “ations”

    • Industrialization/urbanization/immigration

      Progressivism- Reform Movement

      Who? Members of all political parties, social classes, ethnic groups and religions

      Beliefs: Industrialization and Urbanization created social and political problems

      Populism-Similar views on corruption

      Populism-Led by workers and farmers

      Progressivism- Led by middle and upper class

Social problems
Social Problems

  • Political Corruption

    • City officials who built corrupt organizations (Political Machines)

    • Corrupt Government + Urban Growth=

      • Overcrowding

      • Unsafe Drinking Water

      • No/Poor Municipal Services

Big business
Big Business

  • Trusts- Conglomerates…Many wanted Government to “Bust The Trusts”

  • Middle Class- Thought

  • there was no opportunity

  • for small business owners

  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act of

    1890- Wasn’t effective

    enough to limit big business


  • Journalists Call for reform

    • Wrote Sensational stories

    • Muckrake is used for cleaning out horse stalls

    • Lincoln Steffens-Published The Shame of the CitiesAbout Philadelphia government overcharging utilities

    • Jacob Riis-Photographer for New York Sun, published How the Other Half Lives

    • Ida Tarbell-The History of Standard Oil

      John Rockefeller’s Ruthless Methods


  • Upton Sinclair- Wrote The Jungle, a novel about poor immigrants working in Chicago Stockyards

  • Frances Ellen Watkins-African

    American Journalist published Iola Leroy


  • Walter Rauschenbusch-Baptist Minister who wrote Christianity and the Social Crisis

  • Social Gospel- Charity and Justice

    • End Child Labor

    • Shorter Workweek

    • Limit power of Corporations and Trusts


  • Settlement House-Community Center that provided social services to Urban poor

    • Taught English to Immigrants

    • Child Care

    • Taught Kindergarten

      JaneAddams-Worked at Settlement House in England, Opened Hull House in Chicago

      By 1911…400+ Settlement Houses


  • Florence Kelley-Lawyer, helped Ban Child Labor in Illinois

  • 1902-National Child Labor Committee

    • 1909-Helped Create National Association For The Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

    • 1912-Lobbied Federal Government to create U.S. Children’s Bureau

    • 1916 Keating-Owens Act-Banned Child Labor

    • 1918-Ruled Unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court


  • Education-States passed laws forcing Children to Attend School Until A Certain Age

  • John Dewey-Wanted Schools to teach History and Geography, as well as Woodworking and Cooking


  • Industrial Accidents-USA is #1 in World during 1900’s

  • No Safety Laws, 30,000 Workers Die on the Job/500,000 Injured

  • March 1911-Triangle Shirtwaist Factory-New York City- Female Workers, Kills 146

    • Intensifies calls for reform

    • Causes New York to pass laws for workplace safety

Government reform
Government Reform

  • 1900-Galveston, Texas-8,000 Die in massive Hurricane

  • Galveston, TX forms Commission Government

    • 5 Person Commission Replaces Mayor and Aldermen

    • Very Efficient-By 1918 Nearly 500 Cities Adopt Commission

    • Nearly Eliminates Corruption of Political Machines

Political reform
Political Reform

  • Direct Primary- Robert M. La Follette Establishes an Election where citizens vote to select nominees for elections

  • By 1916, all but 4 states have Direct Primaries

  • Initiative-People have power to put new law on ballot by Petitions

  • Referendum-Allow Citizens to say “Yea or Nea”

  • Recall-Voters could remove officials from office before the end of their term

Political reform1
Political Reform

  • Dynamic Progressive Governors

  • Robert La Folletteof Wisconsin

    • Elected 1900

    • Railroads Charge Lower Fees/Pay Higher Taxes

    • Improve Education

      Hiram Johnson of Governor-Stopped Southern Pacific RailRoad Control of State Govt.

      Theodore Roosevelt-New York Governor

      Woodrow Wilson- New Jersey Governor

Women s rights
Women’s Rights

  • Muller v. Oregon-1908

    • Supreme Court Agrees With Louis D. Brandeis, Women Should Only Work 10 Hours

    • Companies pay Women Less Than Men

    • Florence Kelley-National Consumers League

      • Labels Goods Produced Under Fair, Safe and Healthy Working Conditions

      • Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)-Improve Conditions for Female Factory Workers (Minimum Wage)

Women s rights1
Women’s Rights

  • WCTU-Temperance (No Drinking Alcohol)

  • Margaret Sanger-Nurse, Starts 1st Birth Control Clinic in USA

  • Ida B. Wells- National Association of Colored Women (NACW) 1896


  • Suffrage-Right to Vote

  • Carrie Chapman Catt- School Superintendent

  • National American Woman Suffrage Association-NAWSA-President in 1900

  • 2 Prong Attack-Lobby Congress, Make Referendum

  • Recruit Wealthy and Poor

  • “Suffragettes”


  • Alice Paul-Social Activist, Quaker, Ph.D

  • National Woman’s Party (NWP)-1917 Public Protest Marches-1st Group To March at White House

    1917-NAWSA- Supports WWI

    NWP-Opposes War

    1919-19th Amendment-Right To Vote shall Not Be Denied or Abridged on Account of Sex