Exam 1 Stats. Average 51.8 ± 22.1 High 92.5 (2 of you) Low 14. Chapter 8 Activity. The “true” nature of ionic species in solution. Ions are charged molecules As a result, they tend to attract polar solvent molecules (like water, for instance) and other ions Hydrated radius
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A Ca2+ = [Ca2+]gCa2+
A + H2O ↔ A- + H3O+
Ka = A A-A H3O+ / [A] = [A-]gA-[H3O+]gH3O+ / [A]
where g is the activity coefficient and is a function of the ionic radius of the ion and the ionic strength of the solution.
Hg2Br2 Hg22+ + 2Br-
Ksp = [Hg22+]gHg22+ [Br-]2gBr-2
2[Hg22+] = [Br-] and let [Hg22+] = x
Ionic strength is very low.
gHg22+ and gBr- are close to 1.00
Ksp = 4 [x]3 = 5.6E-23
x = 2.4E-8 M
Kw = [OH-]gOH-[H+]gH+ = 1.01E-14
At m = 0.100, gOH- = 0.76 and gH+ = 0.83
H2O is the only source of H+ and OH- so let x = [H+] = [OH-]
Kw = (0.76)(0.83) x2
x = 1.27E-7 M