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CHAPTER 16 The Origin and Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists. 4.8 BYA - earth The early atmosphere probably contained H 2 O, CO, CO 2 , N 2 , and possibly some CH 4 , but little or no O 2 – reducing atmosphere. Figure 16.1A. = 500 million years ago.

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CHAPTER 16 The Origin and Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists

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Chapter 16 the origin and evolution of microbial life prokaryotes and protists

CHAPTER 16The Origin and Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists


Chapter 16 the origin and evolution of microbial life prokaryotes and protists

  • 4.8 BYA - earth

  • The early atmosphere probably contained H2O, CO, CO2, N2, and possibly some CH4, but little or no O2 – reducing atmosphere

Figure 16.1A


Chapter 16 the origin and evolution of microbial life prokaryotes and protists

= 500 million years ago

Earliest animals; diverse algae

Earliest multicellular eukaryotes?

Earliest eukaryotes

Accumulation of atmospheric

O2 from photosyntheticcyanobacteria

Billions of years ago

Oldest known prokaryotic fossils

Origin of life?

Figure 16.1C

Formation of Earth


2 domains of prokaryotes

2 Domains of prokaryotes

Domain Archaea

(Kingdom Archaebacteria)

Evolved first

  • “extreme” bacteria

  • Probably gave rise to eukaryotes based on cell structure (chart pp. 323)


Domain bacteria

Domain Bacteria

  • More recent bacteria

  • Most of the bacteria we are familiar with

  • Contain helpful & harmful


Phyla classification

Phyla classification

  • 9 major groups or phyla (5 in book)

  • P. Proteobacteria

  • P. Chlamydias

  • P. Spirochetes

  • P. Gram +

  • P. Cyanobacteria


Importance

Importance


Chapter 16 the origin and evolution of microbial life prokaryotes and protists

classified by shape & clustering

  • SHAPES

  • Spheres

  • Rods

  • Curves & sprirals

  • Clustering

  • Strepto

  • Staphylo

  • Figure 16.9A-C


    Bacterial cell morphology

    Bacterial cell morphology


    Bacterial plaque

    Bacterial Plaque


    Morphology

    Morphology

    • Gram positive bacteria

    • Gram negative –


    Nutrition niche

    Nutrition & Niche

    • Heterotrophs (organic C)

    • Autotrophs (CO2 for C)

    • Photo- (use of sun for NRG) or chemo- (use of inorganic compounds for NRG)


    Reproduction growth

    Reproduction & Growth


    Conjugation

    conjugation


    How did they ever evolve

    How did they ever evolve??

    • mutations

    • Conjugation

    • Transduction

    • Transformation


    How do they cause harm

    How do they cause harm?

    • Exotoxins

    • Endotoxins

      • Toxins released when bacteria die

    • Enzyme destruction of tissue

      • Attachment of bacteria to cell, enzymes “digest” cell


    Suvivorship

    suvivorship


    Common bacterial diseases

    Common bacterial Diseases


    Transmission

    transmission


    Control of bacteria

    Control of Bacteria

    • Prevent entry to body

    • Antibiotics

      • Antibiotic resistance


    Viruses

    Viruses

    … a little bit of left-over life…


    What is a virus

    What is a virus?

    • Non-living

    • Particle

    • Obligate intra-cellular parasites

      • Can only “live” and make more within a host


    Effects of viruses

    Harmful

    Virulent

    Temperate

    Helpful

    Transduction

    Breeding

    TMV and other viruses often destroy chlorophyll – unique coloration

    Effects of Viruses


    Classified by

    Classified by…

    • Shape

      • Icosahedral, spherical, rod, lunar-lander

    • Genetic Material

      • DNA – makes mRNA & thus viral proteins OR

      • RNA –

    • Host they infect

      • The living world – plants, animals, bacteria


    Structure

    Structure

    • Protein coat surrounding a core of genetic material =

    • Viroid -

    • Prion -

    • Bacteriophage –


    How they work

    How they work

    • Must infect host cell - specificity

    • Take over the host’s genetic machinery

    • Vectored by

    • Can cause immediate harm or “wait” for the right time to become “active”


    Lytic cycle

    Lytic Cycle

    • Fast cycle, immediate harm

    • Absorbtion

      • Recognition of host

    • Entry

      • Often only the DNA/RNA

    • Replication

      • Many copies of viral genes made

    • Assembly of new viruses

    • Release to reinfect other cells

      • lyse


    Lysogenic cycle

    Lysogenic Cycle

    • Slow cycle with dormant or latent period

    • Absorbtion

    • Entry

    • Formation of prophage –

    • Replication without harm – host makes many copies of virus as it copies its own genetic info for mitosis

    • Stimulus –


    Hiv the lysogenic cycle

    HIV & the Lysogenic Cycle

    • HIV + vs. AIDS

    • Dormant phase of 8-10 years

    • When activated, so much virus is present, symptoms appear very rapidly

    • Affects T4 cells or the “white blood cell immunity army”

      • NO defence against other “invaders”


    Control of viruses

    Control of Viruses

    • NO

    • Prevent entry to body

      • Prevent insect bites, boil water, heat food, clean, cover mouth, no unprotected sex

    • Stop attachment –

    • Stop entry to cell

    • Stop replication – induced mutations

    • Stop lysing

    • White blood cells and immunity


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