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Analysing Academic English: new resources and research questions Brno 1/12/05. Josef Schmied Chair English Language & Linguistics Chemnitz University of Technology [email protected] WWW dictionary Schmied 2.

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Analysing Academic English: new resources and research questions

Brno 1/12/05

Josef Schmied

Chair English Language & Linguistics

Chemnitz University of Technology

[email protected]


WWW dictionary Schmied 2

1. The web as a dictionary: from www searching to comparing

0. search machines (esp. Google) allow www comparisons of language usage

indicate occurrence and frequency

1. Webcorp (Liverpool) qualitative / quotations

  • KWIC besides URL
  • esp. specific search in Google/Altavista (e.g. vs

domain-, text-specific (newspaper, etc.)

2. WebPhraseCount (Chemnitz) quantitative differences= compare concurrences of phrases on top level domains


  • Google: 1000 queries per day
  • internal: 100 quotations/snippets/results per search


  • non-English websites (+the)

WWW dictionary Schmied 3

1.2. The web as a dictionary? limitations1. the web is not a reflection of realitythe web is not a corpus - but a text collectionmachine-readable but not stratified!!2. lack of oral languagebut: possibly from more oral parts of the internet like emails and chats3. general characteristic of the web: public!even „private homepages are exhibitionistic“ - and culture-specific

2 multisearch a eu translation corpus in german english french spanish ep 1997 2004

multiSearch Schmied 4

2. multiSearch: a EU translation corpus in German, English, French, Spanish, ... EP 1997-2004

problems vs. surplus value ?

2.1. for translation studies

+ real equivalents (not only comparable texts)

for contrastive linguistics

- not natural

as a discovery procedure


multiSearch Schmied 5

have etc. in English

lassen/läßt, etc. in German

faire/faisait, etc. in French

2 2 example causatives

multiSearch Schmied 6

2.2. Example: causatives

have s.o. do

lassen/läßt, etc. in German

faire/faisait, etc. in French

English ha* +German la* +French fai*

 provides some interesting prototypical cases


multiSearch Schmied 7

ep-00-05-03: 2651English: I have also noted that my dear friend, Mr Dell \' Alba, hashad his grumbles printed as an appendix to my opinion. German: Ich habe auch zur Kenntnis genommen, daß mein spezieller Freund aus dem Parlament, Herr Dell \' Alba, seine Kritik als Anlage zu meiner Stellungnahme hat drucken lassen. French: J\'ai également noté que mon cher ami député M. Dell\'Alba avait fait imprimer ses rouspétances en annexe à mes remarques.


multiSearch Schmied 8

ep-97-07-14: 39English: Just eight days earlier, the European Parliament had adopted a resolution in the topical and urgent debate which runs to about three pages in length. German: Das Europäische Parlament hatte genau acht Tage vorher eine Entschließung in der Dringlichkeitsdebatte verabschiedet, die ungefähr drei Seiten lang ist. French: Huit jours auparavant, le Parlement européen avait adopté une résolution au cours du débat d\'actualité, une résolution qui doit faire environ trois pages. Spanish: Exactamente ocho días antes, el Parlamento Europeo aprobó una resolución en el debate de urgencia que abarca aproximadamente tres páginas.

3 english for academic purposes

EAP Schmied 9

3. English for Academic Purposes

3.1. types

expert to expert vs. layman to layman

expert to expert vs. expert to layman

3.2. data?

3.3. differences?

3 english for academic purposes1

EAP Schmied 10

3. English for Academic Purposes


expert to expert vs. layman to layman


expert to expert vs. expert to layman

Public. of Am. Society of the Learned Sciences

vs. New Scientist?



EAP Schmied 11


technical vocab

academic wordlist

hedges =



EAP Schmied 12

  • The ability of topically
  • applied pTT to induce protective physiologic responses that normally_AV0_M_8
  • result from DNA damage suggests_VV_M_8 a previously undescribed means of
  • reducing skin cancer in high-risk individuals.
  • Skin cancer accounts for at least_AJS_M_9 40% of all human malignancies,
  • #1,000,000 cases annually in the U.S. (1, 2). Incidence
  • is clearly_AV0_M_9 linked to UV exposure and increases exponentially
  • with age (1, 3). Skin cancer risk is greatly_AV0_M_8 increased in the
  • rare disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), because of mutation
  • in one of several DNA repair enzymes responsible for nucleotide
  • excision repair (NER) (4–6). Development of a hairless mouse
  • model (7, 8) and more recently hairless XP gene knockout mice
  • that mimic the human cancer susceptibility (4) has greatly_AV0_M_8
  • facilitated studies of photocarcinogenesis. In particular, lowdose
  • daily UV irradiation of XP group C (Xpc)#/# mice leads to
  • the development of skin cancer with a short latency time (80–100
  • days) and 100% prevalence, and partially_AV0_M_6 repair deficient Xpc#/#
  • mice are also more prone to UV-induced skin cancer than their
  • WT counterparts (9).
english may german vielleicht french

EAP Schmied 13

English may = German vielleicht = French ?

English: Mr President, ladies and gentlemen, Mrs Gradin, before coming to the individual requests I would like to situate this report within a wider framework, even if this may seem presumptuous to the eyes and in the ears of some Members.

German: Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen, liebe Frau Kommissarin Gradin! Bevor ich zu unseren einzelnen Forderungen komme, möchte ich diesen Bericht in einen größeren Zusammenhang stellen, auch wenn dies in den Augen und Ohren der einen oder anderen vielleicht anmaßend erscheint.

French: Monsieur le Président, chers collègues, Mme le commissaire, avant que je n\'en vienne à nos exigences, j\'aimerais placer ce rapport dans un contexte plus large même si cela paraît prétentieux aux yeux de l\'un ou l\'autre.