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WWI. The Great War Ch.23. How did it all start???. 1914: Two great alliances Triple Entente- Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance - Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy

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Wwi

WWI

The Great War

Ch.23


How did it all start

How did it all start???

1914: Two great alliances

Triple Entente- Britain, France, Russia

Triple Alliance- Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy

Sarajevo: June 28, 1914: Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir apparent to the throne) assassinated by Serbian terrorist.

Vienna, July 23: Austrian gov. issues an ultimatum threatening war against Serbia and invades 4 days later.

Berlin, August 1: As Austria’s ally, Germany declares war against Russia, an ally of Serbia.

Berlin, August 3: Germany declares war against France, an ally of Russia, and begins an invasion of Belgium.

London, August 4: Great Britain an ally of France, declares war against Germany.


What were the real sides to the war

What were the REAL sides to the war?

Central Powers

Allies

Britain, France, Italy, Russia, USA

Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire.


Us neutrality

US Neutrality

Reasons:

Founding Fathers

Not the United State’s issue/business.

Issues with Neutrality:

Many Americans sympathize with both sides.

Reports of German atrocities

Imposed trade/blockades.


United states neutrality kind of

United States Neutrality: Kind of

Complete neutrality would have sunk American trade/business.

The US could survive without Central Powers.

The US decides trade with France and Britain are a necessity.

US: J.P Morgan and other bankers give $3 billion in loans to Britain and France.

*Huge economic boom and major supplier of the Allies.


Central powers push their luck

Central Powers Push their luck

Germans start using submarine warfare.

Sink Lusitania: (1915) Kill 128 Americans.

Attack the Sussex: Injured several Americans.


Preparedness versus pacifism

Preparedness versus Pacifism

Wilson very anti-war and anti-preparedness.(needless and provocative)

Mind changes because of Germany’s actions

1916 Election- Democrats cheer that Wilson didn’t get the US into war.

Wilson barely wins reelection.


War for democracy

War for Democracy

Wilson wanted a rational for war.

US wanted to create a new world order

(Progressive ideals)

Promoted a league of nations and a “peace without victory.”

Shortly after Wilson was sworn in, he asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. April 2, 1917


Causes for war

Causes for War

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- Early 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.

Zimmerman Telegram- March 1, US newspapers printed shocking news of a secret telegram sent from Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico that proposed Mexico ally with Germany: Pledged Mexico would get their lost territories back.

Russian Revolution- “Moral Diplomacy” but Russia was governed by an autocratic czar. Russian revolutionaries overthrew the czar’s government and proclaimed a republic.

Renewed submarine attacks- March, German submarines sank 5 unarmed U.S merchant ships.


Entering the war

Entering the War

1917- Virtual stalemate

Americans have a huge influence in the sea.

1)Americans help attack U-boats

2) Escort merchant vessels.

3) Protect US soldiers going to Europe.

Russia withdrew from the war, Britain and France were running low on reserves.

*Americans had to send ground troops*


American expeditionary force

American Expeditionary Force

US had a tiny standing army.

Few experienced in combat, and lacked training.

Create a national draft (Selective Service Act)

3 million men came into the army and 2 million volunteered = (AEF)


Low morale

Low Morale

Trench warfare caused terrible moral.

-Rats, lice, mud, spoiled food, boredom, fear.

1/10 American soldiers acquired a venereal disease.

Women-Menial jobs, not allowed to fight in combat.

African Americans-served in segregated units. Given menial tasks. Hoped it may change racial perceptions.

IQ tests- Reveal extreme disparity in education.


Military struggle

Military Struggle

Spring 1918, Americans send ground troops.

General John J. Pershing led the American forces.

Description of fighting:

Trench warfare

Heavy shelling

“No man’s land”

Low morale

Thoughts of an endless war


Us turn the tides

US turn the Tides

Chateau Thierry June 1918- American troops helped the French hold off a German offensive.

Americans help hold off another attack 6 weeks later at Rheims. (Put an end to German offensive)

Meuse-Argonne Offensive- Americans help attack Germans in the Argonne Forest

Germans are forced back to their border and hurt their supply lines.

Germany had to decide to have warfare in their country or surrender.

November 11, 1918, the Germans surrendered.


New technology

New Technology

Improved machine guns and artillery.

Tanks

Flamethrowers.

Chemical Warfare: (Poisonous mustard gas)

Airplanes

New battleships

Submarines


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