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Marzano Instructional Model Overview. Toby Boss ESU 6. Expert Perceptions Richard Elmore. Education is a profession without a practice. We haven ’ t developed a clear sense of what we do, and how it relates to our core mission.

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expert perceptions richard elmore
Expert PerceptionsRichard Elmore
  • Education is a profession without a practice.
  • We haven’t developed a clear sense of what we do, and how it relates to our core mission.
  • It is no longer acceptable to say that teaching is a mysterious thing, that occurs idiosyncratically in every classroom.
  • We need a systematic answer to the question of how we do what we do.
slide3

The Art & Science of Teaching 10 “design questions” teachers ask of themselves as they plan a unit of instruction.

the art and science of teaching
The Art and Science of Teaching

Ten Design Questions – What will I do to:

  • establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success?
  • help students effectively interact with new knowledge?
  • help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?
  • help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?
  • engage students?
  • establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures?
  • recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures?
  • establish and maintain effective relationships with students?
  • communicate high expectations for all students?
  • develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?
why do we need a common language of instruction
Why do we need a common language of instruction?
  • Provides a method to talk about instruction
  • Provides a way to name, share and replicate strategies
  • Provides a framework for reflection and goal setting
presumptions
Presumptions
  • Teaching is complex
  • The model should be “robust” enough to capture this complexity – 41 strategies
  • Teachers need not do them all
  • Gains are incremental - get better at a few each year
  • Feedback using a common language of instruction is critical
lesson segments
Lesson Segments
  • “Thin slices” of instruction
    • Those involving routines
    • Those involving content
    • Those enacted on the spot
mrl scales for reflective practice general scale
MRL Scales for Reflective Practice:General Scale
  • Innovating
    • New strategies are created to meet needs of specific students or class as a whole
  • Applying
    • Strategy is used and monitored to see if it has desired effect
  • Developing
    • Strategy is used but in a mechanistic way
  • Beginning
    • Strategy is used but pieces are missing
  • Not Using
    • Strategy is called for but not used
incremental improvement
Incremental Improvement
  • It takes deliberate practice to over the course of 10 years to be an expert
  • Teachers need not do all the strategies – not only one way to teach – it’s complex!
  • Choose one or two for improvement with deliberate practice
  • Goals for improvement should be set at appropriate stages (yearly, semester, quarter)
slide10

The Art and Science of Teaching

Learning Goals and Feedback

Interacting with New Knowledge

Practicing and Deepening

Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Student Engagement

Establishing Rules and Procedures

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

Teacher-Student Relationships

High Expectations

Page 7, The Art & Science of Teaching

slide11

The Art and Science of Teaching

Student Engagement

Teacher/Student Relationships

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

High Expectations

ENACTED ON THE SPOT

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Interacting with New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

11

Heflebower, Marzano Research Laboratory

cutting-edge research concrete strategies sustainable success

lesson segments1
Lesson Segments
  • “Thin slices” of instruction
    • Those involving routines
    • Those involving content
    • Those enacted on the spot
slide13

The Art and Science of Teaching

Routine Segments

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

routine segments
Routine Segments
  • Communicate learning goals
  • Track student progress
  • Celebrate success
  • Establish classroom rules and procedures
  • Organize the physical layout of the room
discuss
Discuss
  • What are examples of routine segments from your practice?
  • How do you:
    • Communicate to students the learning goal?
    • Establish and teach procedures?
    • Provide feedback?
    • Celebrate?
    • Organize the room?
slide16

The Art and Science of Teaching

Content Segments

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Interacting with New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

16

content segments
Content Segments
  • Interact with new knowledge
  • Practice and deepen content
  • Generate and test hypothesis
slide18

The Art and Science of Teaching

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Interacting with New Knowledge

please think about the look fors
Please think about the look fors…
  • Previewing activities
  • Info presented in small chunks
  • Students processing each chunk in small groups
  • Students summarizing and taking notes after content has been introduced
  • Students reflecting on their learning
  • Personal story shared
slide20

The Art and Science of Teaching

ENACTED ON THE SPOT

Student Engagement

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Teacher/Student Relationships

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

Interacting With New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

High Expectations

if the segment involves knowledge practice and deepening activities what do you expect to see
If the segment involves knowledge practice and deepening activities, what do you expect to see?
students engaged in
Students Engaged in:
  • Practicing skills, strategies, and processes
  • Examining similarities and differences
    • Comparing/contrasting,
    • Classifying,
    • Creating analogies and metaphors
  • Identifying Errors in Thinking
  • Using homework
    • Guided and independent practice
  • Cooperative learning activities
  • Revising knowledge
    • Reviewing/revising notes so they are useful to students and add clarity to understanding.
slide23

The Art and Science of Teaching

ENACTED ON THE SPOT

Student Engagement

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Teacher/Student Relationships

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

Interacting With New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

High Expectations

different lessons and expected behaviors
Different Lessons and Expected Behaviors

New Knowledge

  • Preview
  • Small chunks
  • Students process chunks.
  • Summarize and take notes.
  • Students reflect.

Generating or Testing Hypotheses (application)

  • Brief review
  • Students work individually or in groups, applying content.
  • Teacher as facilitator/resource provider
moving to application
Moving to Application

P. 14

  • Effective support
    • Valid claims
    • qualifiers
  • Experimental inquiry
  • Problem-solving
  • Investigations
  • Decision-making
slide26

ENACTED ON THE SPOT

Student Engagement

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Teacher/Student Relationships

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

Interacting With New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

High Expectations

strategies enacted on the spot
Strategies Enacted on the Spot
  • Engagement (Q. 5)
  • Relationships (Q.8)
  • Recognizing Rules & Procedures (Q. 6-7)
  • High Expectations for All (Q. 9)
an old proverb states
An Old Proverb states:
  • You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make them drink.
  • We learned that maybe with “reward and punishment” the horse will do what ever we ask.
  • However, consider a different goal, “How can I make the horse thirsty?”
strategies to increase engagement
Strategies to increase engagement

P. 15

  • Use of games
  • Inconsequential competition
  • Manage response rates
  • Physical movement
  • Effective pacing
  • Student interest
  • Demonstrating intensity and enthusiasm
strategies to increase engagement1
Strategies to increase engagement
  • Use of games
  • Inconsequential competition
  • Manage response rates
  • Physical movement
  • Effective pacing
  • Demonstrating intensity and enthusiasm
teachers asked an average of 50 6 questions students posed only 1 8 questions in a 30 minute period

Teachers asked an average of 50.6 questions; students posed only 1.8 questions in a 30 minute period.

Susskind, E. (1979), Encouraging teachers to encourage children’s curiosity: A pivotal competence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 8, 101-106.

research finding 1

Research finding #1

Teachers ask many questions

implication
Implication:
  • Teachers should plan their questions before asking.
slide35

Research Finding #2: Most teacher questions are at the lowest cognitive level—known as fact, recall, or knowledge.

Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

implication1
Implication:
  • Teachers should purposefully plan and ask questions that require students to engage in higher-level thinking.
research finding 3
Research finding #3:
  • Not all students are accountable to respond to all questions.
  • Teachers frequently call on volunteers, and these volunteers constitute a select group of students—especially in traditional settings.

Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

implication2
Implication:
  • Teachers should establish classroom norms that every student deserves an opportunity to answer questions
  • All students’ answers are important.
slide39

Try some procedures that get every child involved:

  • Use paired responses (A/B partner response).
  • Call on students randomly—Popsicle sticks with names on them.
  • Using response chaining.
  • Using choral responses.
  • Using quick draws.
  • Using hand signals (thumbs up/down).
  • Using response cards.
  • Using response technologies.

(ASOT, pp. 71–74)

research finding 4
Research finding #4:
  • Teachers typically wait less than 1 second after asking a question before calling on a student to answer.
  • They wait even less time before speaking after the student has answered

Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005).Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

implication3
Implication:
  • Both wait times 1 and 2 promote student thinking and foster more students’ formulating answers to more questions.
slide42

Research finding #5: Teachers often accept incorrect answers without probing; They frequently answer their own questions.

Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

implication4
Implication:
  • Teachers should seek to understand incorrect or incomplete answers more completely by gently guiding student thinking with appropriate probes.
research finding 6 students ask very few content related questions

Research finding #6: Students ask very few content-related questions.

Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

implications
Implications:
  • Value student questions
  • Help students learn to formulate good questions, and
  • Make time for student questions.
quantity questions
From

How many doors or windows in this room?

What is square root of 16?

Name the members of the United Nations.

To

What are the possible ways to get out of this room?

List ways you can think to say “4” or “-4”?

What concern would you take to the United Nations and why?

Quantity Questions

(Johnson, Active Questioning, 1995)

compare contrast questions move from concrete to abstract
Compare/Contrast Questions(move from concrete to abstract)
  • How is _________like__________?
  • How is ________different from_________?
  • Seeing/believing
  • Freedom/boundaries
  • Human brain/computer
  • Building a building/building a relationship
  • National Party/Labor Party
  • Use of analogies

Classroom Instruction that Works, 2001

how can i assess my questioning style
How can I assess my questioning style?
  • Record a complete day of teaching
  • Review in privacy
  • For every right/wrong answer (convergent) type of question give yourself a check
  • For every divergent (multiple options) question, give yourself an X
  • Add the total of checks and Xs
  • How long did you wait for responses?
    • Hunter research 2.5 seconds—try 5 seconds or more.

Questioning Makes the Difference, Johnson, 1990

slide50

The Art and Science of Teaching

Enacted on the Spot

Student Engagement

Involves Routines

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

Addresses Content in Specific Ways

Teacher–Student Relationships

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

Interacting With New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

High Expectations

design question seven

Design Question Seven

What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures?

action steps
Action Steps
  • Simple verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement
  • Tangible recognition when appropriate
  • Involve the home.
  • Be “with it”.
  • Direct cost
  • Group contingency (very limited use)
  • Home contingency
  • Strategy for high-intensity situations
slide53

The Child Often Teaches the Adult to Behave Inappropriately Faster Than the Adult Teaches the Child to Behavior Appropriately.

secondary students what do your best teachers do to help us learn
Secondary StudentsWhat do your best teachers do to help us learn?
  • They are positive and listen to us.
    • One student said, “I like it when they actively ask me what I think.”
    • One student said, “I like teachers who exhibit STORM—supportive, tolerant, respect students, look us in the eyes, know me as a person, listen to us….things like that.”
    • Three students piggy-backed on that comment to say, “They don’t need to yell at us.” Another commented, “They don’t want us to be rude, yet it feels like they are rude to us sometimes.”
    • Another said, “I appreciate teachers who have a fun side—they make you want to learn.”
question 8 relationships action steps pg 12
Question 8--RelationshipsAction Steps pg. 12
  • Know something about each student.
  • Engage in behaviors that indicate affection.
  • Use student interests.
  • Use appropriate physical behaviors.
  • Use humor when appropriate.
  • Consistently enforce positive and negative consequences.
  • Project a sense of emotional objectivity.
  • Maintain a cool exterior.
in the classroom the art and science of teaching
“In the Classroom” The Art and Science of Teaching
  • Identify your expectation levels for students.
  • Identify differential treatment of low expectancy students.
  • Revise your thinking about low expectancy students.
  • Push high expectations for low expectancy students.
on the spot segments
On the Spot Segments
  • Student engagement
  • Adherence to rules and procedures
  • Teacher –student relationships
  • High expectations
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