Chapter 3 the biosphere
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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere. What is Ecology?. Ecology The study of organisms and their interactions with their environment The root word of ecology means “ houses ” in Greek….so we ’ re studying the “ houses ” or habitat organisms live, and studying the organisms themselves.

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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere

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Chapter 3 the biosphere

Chapter 3 – The Biosphere


What is ecology

What is Ecology?

  • Ecology

    • The study of organisms and their interactions with their environment

    • The root word of ecology means “houses” in Greek….so we’re studying the “houses” or habitat organisms live, and studying the organisms themselves.


Chapter 3 the biosphere

What makes the Earth so special?


Chapter 3 the biosphere

Its biosphere!

Biosphere –

 Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere

 No biosphere = no people!


Chapter 3 the biosphere

  • Biosphere –

    • “life”“sphere”

  • Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere


Chapter 3 the biosphere

The Biosphere is made up of…

Biomes which are made up of

Ecosystems which contain…

Communities made up of…

Populations made up of…

Organisms or a Species


Chapter 3 the biosphere

  • Biome –

    • Group of ecosystems that share similar climate and typical organisms

    • OR geographic region of earth usually defined by weather and the species found there.

    • Biome Examples:

      • Grasslands – Temperate and Tropical (savannah)

      • Deserts

      • Forest – Deciduous, Rain

      • Others…


Ecosystem terms

Ecosystem Terms

  • Ecosystem –

    • All the living organisms in an area and the physical environment in which they life.

      • OR living group of organisms that interact with each other and the nonliving environment

  • Community -

    • The different populations that live in an area


Ecosystem terms1

Ecosystem Terms

Population –

a group of individuals of the same species in an area

PA Examples:

White tail deer

Black oak trees

Black bears


9 12 and 9 13 atb

9/12 and 9/13 ATB

  • What are 3 characteristics that a species shares?

  • Today:

    • Printing assignment due

    • Discuss hybrid organisms

    • Compare / contrast abiotic and biotic factors and their importance to life


Ecosystem terms2

Ecosystem Terms

  • Species –

    • a group of organisms that are capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring

      • Similar appearance and similar genetic makeup,

    • Examples:

      •  dogs

      •  cats

      •  humans


Ecosystem terms3

Ecosystem Terms

  • Hybrid –

    • an offspring of two different species (or objects)

      • These are sterile

    • Examples:

      • Mule – horse and donkey

      • Liger – lion (male) and tiger (female)

      • Fuel efficient vehicles

        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CD6vpheUoPE


Chapter 3 the biosphere

  • Are "Humanzees" Possible?

  • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-mizejewski/are-humanzees-possible_b_877792.html


Chapter 3 the biosphere

Last Class

Tiglons / Tigons – female lion and male tiger

Ligers – male lion and female tiger

- have been found to be fertile in some cases

http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2002/0829/bz9-4.html


Ecosystem terms4

Ecosystem Terms

  • Habitat –

    • a place where a particular species lives – can be very big or small

    • Examples:

      • Atlantic Ocean

      • Mud puddle

      • Forest

      • YourSkin


Biotic and abiotic factors

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Biotic Factors –

    • living parts of the ecosystem (grass, animals, etc)

  • Abiotic Factors –

    • nonliving (never were alive) parts of the ecosystem


Chapter 3 the biosphere

  • List 5 abiotic factors on land

  • Surface/ground water

  • Sunlight

  • Wind

  • Temperature

  • Altitude

  • List 5 abiotic factors in water

  • Currents

  • Temperature

  • Concentration of nutrients in the water

  • Air (CO2, O2, N2)

  • Soil

  • Precipitation

  • Lighting

  • Salinity

  • Sunlight penetration


Biotic and abiotic factors1

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Both of biotic and abiotic factors make up the environment in which organisms live

  • Soil – made up of nonliving particles, but also many bacteria and fungi


Writing practice 3 minutes

Writing practice (3 minutes)

  • In a margin of your packet:

    • Choose anything biotic and describe how ANY abiotic factor could affect it.

    • THINK…it doesn’t matter what it is

    • Yes you can be creative, and no, this isn’t graded.


Chapter 3 the biosphere

  • Create a sentence that explains how an abiotic factor could affect a biotic factor in an environment


Chapter 3 the biosphere

Reviewing Terms

Biosphere

Ecosystem

Population

Species

Hybrid

Habitat


Chapter 3 the biosphere

Quick Talk

Habitat

Ecosystem

Species

Population

Hybrid

Biosphere


Review

Review

  • What is main the difference between a species and a hybrid?

  • Describe TWO ways in which abiotic factors could effect an organism in an environment


Primary producers

Primary Producers

  • Autotrophs

    • Organisms that use solar or chemical energy to produce food

  • What is the food that autotrophs produce?

    • Sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)

  • Examples:

    • Algae, certain types of bacteria, plants


  • Primary producers1

    Primary Producers

    • Primary Producers –

      • organisms that use elements from the environment to make their own food

      • aka autotrophs

      • What elements do most producers use/need?

        • Sun, Water, CO2, Soil for nutrients and minerals

      • Examples =

        • Plants and chemosynthetic bacteria


    Primary producers2

    Primary Producers

    • Photosynthesis

      • Process of capturing light energy to make chemical energy (food – glucose)


    Primary producers3

    Primary Producers

    • Chemosynthesis

      • Organisms that use chemicals (hydrogen sulfide) to produce carbohydrates

    • Examples – chemosynthetic bacteria


    Chemosynthesis

    Chemosynthesis

    • Hydrothermal Vents – 1

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D69hGvCsWgA

    • David Attenborough on Hydrothermal Vents

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXGF3XS-yAI

    • Hydrothermal Vents (nat geo)

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XotF9fzo4Vo

    • .


    Consumers

    Consumers

    • Heterotroph –

      • Organisms that must acquire energy from other organisms

    • Consumer –

      • an organism that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients

      • Examples = us, animals, lions, tigers, and bears


    Ecosystem terms5

    Ecosystem Terms

    • Primary Consumer –

      • consumers that feed on plants

        • Examples:

    • Secondary Consumer –

      • consumers that feed on primary consumers

      • Examples:

    • Tertiary Consumer –

      • eats a 2nd level consumer


    Consumers1

    Consumers

    • Carnivore –

      • an organism that only (primarily) eats meat

    • PA Examples:

    • Scavenger –

      • an organism that feeds on dead organisms

      • Examples:


    Chapter 3 the biosphere

    Types of Consumers

    Herbivore –

    an organism thatonly (primarily) eats plants

    PA Examples:

    Omnivore–

    an organism thatreadily eats both plants and meat

    PA Examples:


    Exceptions

    Exceptions?

    • Photosynthetic sea slug

    • ElysiaChlorotica: A Sap-Sucking, Solar-Powered Sea Slug

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAMP8erryKE

    • Sea slug intro

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQNIpW0LlsU

    • Amazing Photosynthetic Animals

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcX2n1rC4W4

    • Venus fly trap - The Private Life of Plants - David Attenborough - BBC wildlife

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktIGVtKdgwo


    Consumers2

    Consumers

    • Decomposer –

      • bacteria or fungus that chemically break down dead organisms

    • How do decomposers help an ecosystem?

      • Break down dead organisms and return their nutrients to the soil.

    • Detrivores

      • Organisms that feed on decaying particles (leaves, etc)

      • Examples: Worms, crabs, snails


    Decomposition vids

    Decomposition Vids

    • The Body Farm - Study of Human Decomposition

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_SiqND9bNA

  • Baby Pig

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1CD6gNmhr0

  • Elephant

    • http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/elephant-life-after-death/

    • Eating Giants (little gross)

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OX9xCo183VA

  • Hippo

    • http://animal.discovery.com/video-topics/wild-animals/eating-giants-hippo.htm


  • Chapter 3 the biosphere

    Soil

    • Why is soil important?

      • Provides nutrients for plants to grow

      • The loss of soil prevents producers from growing and hurts the ecosystem

      • Soil Erosion –

        • the movement of soil by wind, water or any other source


    What do all these have in common

    What do all these have in common?

    • Consumers

    • Herbivores

    • Omnivores

    • Carnivores

    • Decomposers

    • All these are considered -- heterotrophs


    Book assignment

    Book Assignment

    • Page 72

    • #1-2


    Chapter 3 the biosphere

    Review

    Are herbivores always consumers?

    Are consumers always herbivores?

    Are carnivores ever primary consumers?


    Chapter 3 the biosphere

    Review

    Which of the following would be TRUE of a zorse?

    • The zorse will probably have many baby zorses.

    • The zorse should be identical to the horse in genetic makeup and appearance.

    • The zorse is most likely infertile.


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