Chapter 3 the biosphere
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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere. What is Ecology?. Ecology The study of organisms and their interactions with their environment The root word of ecology means “ houses ” in Greek….so we ’ re studying the “ houses ” or habitat organisms live, and studying the organisms themselves.

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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere

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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere


What is Ecology?

  • Ecology

    • The study of organisms and their interactions with their environment

    • The root word of ecology means “houses” in Greek….so we’re studying the “houses” or habitat organisms live, and studying the organisms themselves.


What makes the Earth so special?


Its biosphere!

Biosphere –

 Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere

 No biosphere = no people!


  • Biosphere –

    • “life”“sphere”

  • Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere


The Biosphere is made up of…

Biomes which are made up of

Ecosystems which contain…

Communities made up of…

Populations made up of…

Organisms or a Species


  • Biome –

    • Group of ecosystems that share similar climate and typical organisms

    • OR geographic region of earth usually defined by weather and the species found there.

    • Biome Examples:

      • Grasslands – Temperate and Tropical (savannah)

      • Deserts

      • Forest – Deciduous, Rain

      • Others…


Ecosystem Terms

  • Ecosystem –

    • All the living organisms in an area and the physical environment in which they life.

      • OR living group of organisms that interact with each other and the nonliving environment

  • Community -

    • The different populations that live in an area


Ecosystem Terms

Population –

a group of individuals of the same species in an area

PA Examples:

White tail deer

Black oak trees

Black bears


9/12 and 9/13 ATB

  • What are 3 characteristics that a species shares?

  • Today:

    • Printing assignment due

    • Discuss hybrid organisms

    • Compare / contrast abiotic and biotic factors and their importance to life


Ecosystem Terms

  • Species –

    • a group of organisms that are capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring

      • Similar appearance and similar genetic makeup,

    • Examples:

      •  dogs

      •  cats

      •  humans


Ecosystem Terms

  • Hybrid –

    • an offspring of two different species (or objects)

      • These are sterile

    • Examples:

      • Mule – horse and donkey

      • Liger – lion (male) and tiger (female)

      • Fuel efficient vehicles

        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CD6vpheUoPE


  • Are "Humanzees" Possible?

  • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-mizejewski/are-humanzees-possible_b_877792.html


Last Class

Tiglons / Tigons – female lion and male tiger

Ligers – male lion and female tiger

- have been found to be fertile in some cases

http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2002/0829/bz9-4.html


Ecosystem Terms

  • Habitat –

    • a place where a particular species lives – can be very big or small

    • Examples:

      • Atlantic Ocean

      • Mud puddle

      • Forest

      • YourSkin


Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Biotic Factors –

    • living parts of the ecosystem (grass, animals, etc)

  • Abiotic Factors –

    • nonliving (never were alive) parts of the ecosystem


  • List 5 abiotic factors on land

  • Surface/ground water

  • Sunlight

  • Wind

  • Temperature

  • Altitude

  • List 5 abiotic factors in water

  • Currents

  • Temperature

  • Concentration of nutrients in the water

  • Air (CO2, O2, N2)

  • Soil

  • Precipitation

  • Lighting

  • Salinity

  • Sunlight penetration


Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Both of biotic and abiotic factors make up the environment in which organisms live

  • Soil – made up of nonliving particles, but also many bacteria and fungi


Writing practice (3 minutes)

  • In a margin of your packet:

    • Choose anything biotic and describe how ANY abiotic factor could affect it.

    • THINK…it doesn’t matter what it is

    • Yes you can be creative, and no, this isn’t graded.


  • Create a sentence that explains how an abiotic factor could affect a biotic factor in an environment


Reviewing Terms

Biosphere

Ecosystem

Population

Species

Hybrid

Habitat


Quick Talk

Habitat

Ecosystem

Species

Population

Hybrid

Biosphere


Review

  • What is main the difference between a species and a hybrid?

  • Describe TWO ways in which abiotic factors could effect an organism in an environment


Primary Producers

  • Autotrophs

    • Organisms that use solar or chemical energy to produce food

  • What is the food that autotrophs produce?

    • Sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)

  • Examples:

    • Algae, certain types of bacteria, plants


  • Primary Producers

    • Primary Producers –

      • organisms that use elements from the environment to make their own food

      • aka autotrophs

      • What elements do most producers use/need?

        • Sun, Water, CO2, Soil for nutrients and minerals

      • Examples =

        • Plants and chemosynthetic bacteria


    Primary Producers

    • Photosynthesis

      • Process of capturing light energy to make chemical energy (food – glucose)


    Primary Producers

    • Chemosynthesis

      • Organisms that use chemicals (hydrogen sulfide) to produce carbohydrates

    • Examples – chemosynthetic bacteria


    Chemosynthesis

    • Hydrothermal Vents – 1

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D69hGvCsWgA

    • David Attenborough on Hydrothermal Vents

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXGF3XS-yAI

    • Hydrothermal Vents (nat geo)

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XotF9fzo4Vo

    • .


    Consumers

    • Heterotroph –

      • Organisms that must acquire energy from other organisms

    • Consumer –

      • an organism that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients

      • Examples = us, animals, lions, tigers, and bears


    Ecosystem Terms

    • Primary Consumer –

      • consumers that feed on plants

        • Examples:

    • Secondary Consumer –

      • consumers that feed on primary consumers

      • Examples:

    • Tertiary Consumer –

      • eats a 2nd level consumer


    Consumers

    • Carnivore –

      • an organism that only (primarily) eats meat

    • PA Examples:

    • Scavenger –

      • an organism that feeds on dead organisms

      • Examples:


    Types of Consumers

    Herbivore –

    an organism thatonly (primarily) eats plants

    PA Examples:

    Omnivore–

    an organism thatreadily eats both plants and meat

    PA Examples:


    Exceptions?

    • Photosynthetic sea slug

    • ElysiaChlorotica: A Sap-Sucking, Solar-Powered Sea Slug

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAMP8erryKE

    • Sea slug intro

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQNIpW0LlsU

    • Amazing Photosynthetic Animals

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcX2n1rC4W4

    • Venus fly trap - The Private Life of Plants - David Attenborough - BBC wildlife

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktIGVtKdgwo


    Consumers

    • Decomposer –

      • bacteria or fungus that chemically break down dead organisms

    • How do decomposers help an ecosystem?

      • Break down dead organisms and return their nutrients to the soil.

    • Detrivores

      • Organisms that feed on decaying particles (leaves, etc)

      • Examples: Worms, crabs, snails


    Decomposition Vids

    • The Body Farm - Study of Human Decomposition

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_SiqND9bNA

  • Baby Pig

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1CD6gNmhr0

  • Elephant

    • http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/elephant-life-after-death/

    • Eating Giants (little gross)

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OX9xCo183VA

  • Hippo

    • http://animal.discovery.com/video-topics/wild-animals/eating-giants-hippo.htm


  • Soil

    • Why is soil important?

      • Provides nutrients for plants to grow

      • The loss of soil prevents producers from growing and hurts the ecosystem

      • Soil Erosion –

        • the movement of soil by wind, water or any other source


    What do all these have in common?

    • Consumers

    • Herbivores

    • Omnivores

    • Carnivores

    • Decomposers

    • All these are considered -- heterotrophs


    Book Assignment

    • Page 72

    • #1-2


    Review

    Are herbivores always consumers?

    Are consumers always herbivores?

    Are carnivores ever primary consumers?


    Review

    Which of the following would be TRUE of a zorse?

    • The zorse will probably have many baby zorses.

    • The zorse should be identical to the horse in genetic makeup and appearance.

    • The zorse is most likely infertile.


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