Learning & Cognitive Processes. What is a “process” ? (as in Learning Processes). 1 ANYTHING GOING ON <as in “the process of time”> 2 a natural phenomenon marked by gradual changes that lead toward a particular result <the process of growth>. Webster. Sense making
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What is a “process” ?
(as in Learning Processes)
1 ANYTHING GOING ON<as in “the process of time”>
2 a natural phenomenon marked by gradual changes that
lead toward a particular result <the process of growth>
Students moving learning experiences
through their own filters of making meaning.
As teachers, we have to decide whether our goal is to
pass the time & fill class sessions with delivery of knowledge
OR to engage students in “meaning making.”
People are actively involved in their own learning.
Cognitive processes become more sophisticated with age
People are selective about what/how they process & learn
Prior knowledge plays a major role
Cognitive processes (the specific things that people do mentally)
influence what is learned
Meaning is constructed rather than transmitted
Types of Knowledge
Depth of processing
Conceptual Learning / Understanding
meaningful units, Previous knowledge helps
Model of Memory
Focus on meaning
Long Term Memory
Subject to interference
Explicit vs. implicit
Semantic vs. episodic
Vision, Smell, Sound, Taste, Touch
. 5 - 2 second duration
Holds 7+ chunks
(most successful when we focus on meaning & understanding when we learn)
Retrieving information from long-term memory appears to be a process of following a “pathway” of associations.
Factors that affect remembering:
How well information is organized
Making multiple connections with existing knowledge
Learning information to mastery and beyond
Having relevant retrieval cues
(A hint about where to “look” for information)
Failure to Store efficiently :
Failure to mentally process information in ways that promote its storage in long-term memory.
Weakening over time of information stored in long-
term memory especially if the information is used
Phenomenon whereby something stored in long-
term memory inhibits ones ability to remember
something else correctly.
Inability to retrieve:
Failure to locate information (reconstruction error)
Focus on underlying concepts
Focus on understanding
Learning for the sake of learning & mastery
Work for grades or evaluation
Declarative Knowledge Relates to how things are - I see a tree, I hear a bird, I am a girl.Learned through:Rehearsal: Repeating something over and over verbally. Can leads to Rote Learning (little or no sense making)Meaningful Learning: Recognizing a relationshipOrganization Making connections among various pieces of new information Often involves connecting it with existing knowledge.Elaboration: Learners expand on new information The more a student uses knowledge the more beneficial it is. Examples of elaborating Why do you think this happens? Can you think of some examples of this concept? How could we use this idea in our everyday lives? What things could you conclude from this information?Visual Imagery: mental pictures, maps, representations
How to do things. Riding a bicycle, making a bed, etc. Begins with declarative knowledge ABOUT the procedure
but moves on the practice Perform the task, slowly Becomes automatic Encourage students to use verbal rehearsal, give them feed back, let them perform the task in a safe environment.Conditional Knowledge: How to respond in a certain situation
The why and when of application of information