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Topic--5. Advanced production technology. Advanced production technology. Advancement of production technology: Mechanization---computerization—automation Mechanization: efforts of replacing human power with machine power in functioning work (machining/inspecting/lifting/…..)

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Topic 5

Topic--5

Advanced production technology


Advanced production technology

Advanced production technology

  • Advancement of production technology:

    Mechanization---computerization—automation

    Mechanization: efforts of replacing human

    power with machine power in functioning work

    (machining/inspecting/lifting/…..)

    Computerization: efforts of replacing human

    with computer systems in the work of

    information processing and decision—making

    process (data collection &

    analyzing/alternative plan evaluating/…….)


Advanced production technology1

Advanced production technology

  • Automation: efforts of integrating mechanization and computerization into a system to perform all routinely work.

    1.Office automation: Hotel / Bank /

    Airline /......(with copier /fax

    machining /computer data

    processing /....)


Advanced production technology2

Advanced production technology

2. Factory Automation: fixed and flexible automated plants (with NC machine/robotics/CAD&CAM/.......)

  • Advanced technologies bring many issues, problems and challenges to both managers and workers.


Managing technology

Managing Technology

  • Technology: the know-how, physical things and procedures used to produce products and services; also support network

  • Three primary areas:

    1. Product technology: translate ideas into new products and service for firm’s customers.

    2. Process technology: determines methods by which an organization does things

    3. Information technology: used to acquire, process and transmit information; particularly revolutionary in offices


Managing technology1

Managing Technology

  • Management of technology

    1.Links R&D, engineering and management to plan, develop and complement new technological capabilities

    2.How much to know about technologies in one’s own operations

    3.Managers are less effective when standing at arm’s length from the technologies that make up its current and core competencies


Tracing the impact of new technology on employment

Tracing the Impact of New Technology on Employment

  • Jobs Created:

  • Programmers

  • CAD Operators

  • Etc.

  • New Industries:

New Technology

  • New Skills

  • Required:

Skills Shortages

  • Jobs Lost:

  • Unskilled Laborers

  • Machinists

  • Etc.

Education

System

Company

Training

Policy

Union Relations

Company Retraining Policy

Company Policy

Adult Education

High Schools

Government Unemployment Policy

Colleges

Universities


Infrastructure technologies

Computer Hardware

Software Systems

Communications Network

Database Management Systems

Artificial Intelligence/ Expert System

Machine Vision/ Sensors

Data Collection

Automated Guide Vehicles AGV

Conveyers

Automated Storage/ Retrieval Systems (AS/RS)

Robotics

Infrastructure Technologies

Information

Technology

Material Handling/

Storage Technology


Manufacturing automation technologies

Manufacturing Automation Technologies

Production Automation

Technologies

Infrastructure Technologies

Numerical control (NC)

CNC Machines

Robotics

Automated Assembly

  • Information technologies

  • Hardware/ software/

  • communications

  • Machine vision, sensors

  • Bar code, RFI

  • Material handling/ storage

  • Conveyers, AGV

  • Automated storage/

  • retrieval system

Flexible Manufacturing

Systems


Cim factory of the today

CIM: Factory of the Today

  • CIM: computer-integrated-manufacturing:

    1. CAD: computer-aided-design

    2. CAM: computer-aided-manufacturing

    CNC: computer numerically controlled (machine)

    3. CAPP: computer-aided-process planning

    4. Integrated CAD/CAPP/CAM

    5. Fixed automated flow line (AFL: hard automation)


Cim factory of the today ii

CIM: Factory of the Today (II)

6.Flexible automated production line (flexible automation)

FMS: flexible manufacturing system

AS/RS: automated storage/Retrieval system

AGV: automated guided vehicle

Robotics/CNC/Central control system

7. MRPII: manufacturing resources planning

JIT (Just in time)

MIS (Management information systems)

DSS ( decision support systems)


Computer aided design and manufacturing

Computer-aided design and manufacturing

  • CAD

  • CAM

  • CAD/CAM

  • NC; CNC

  • Industrial robots

  • Automated materials handling

  • AVG: AS/RS


Computer aided design and manufacturing1

Computer-aided design and manufacturing

  • FMS:

    ---Three Key components of an FMS

    ---Strategic use of FMS

    1.Intermediate flow strategy

    2.Line flow process where

    product life cycles are short

    ----Flexible manufacturing cells


A picture of cim

A Picture of CIM

CAM

CAD

CAPP

MRPII

CCS

DSS

JIT

MIS

ROBOTICS

ASRS

AGV

AFL

FMS


Topic 5

Automated Production Systems

  • Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)

    • Kits of materials/parts for a product are loaded on the materials-handling system

    • Code is entered into computer identifying product and its location in the sequence

    • Each production machine (without a worker):

      • Receives settings/instructions from computer

      • Automatically loads/unloads required tools

      • Carries out its processing instructions

    • Product automatically transferred to next machine


Topic 5

Automated Production Systems

  • Automated Storage & Retrieval Systems (ASRS)

    • Receive orders for materials in operations

    • Collect the materials from locations in warehouse

    • Deliver the materials to workstations in operations

    • Three major elements of ASRS are:

      • Computers and communication systems

      • Automated materials handling/delivery systems

      • Storage and retrieval systems in warehouse

  • Main benefits of ASRS are:

    • Increased storage capacity

    • Increased system throughput

    • Reduced labor costs

    • Improved product quality


Benefits of flexible manufacturing systems

Benefits of Flexible Manufacturing Systems


Topic 5

Comparison of Manpower Requirements of Conventional Technology with Flexible Manufacturing Systems for Metal-Cutting Operations


Some examples of automation in services

Some Examples of Automation in Services


Topic 5

Manual Operations

High

Mechanized Operations

Automated

Operations

Low

Capital

Intensity

Low

High

Degree of Customer Contact inServicesand the Use of Automated Equipment

Degree of

Customer Contact


The history of rationalization

The History of Rationalization


Topic 5

Redesigning Products for Automated Assembly

  • Reduce the amount of assembly required

  • Reduce the number of fasteners required

  • Design components to be automatically delivered and positioned

  • Design products for layered assembly and vertical insertion of parts

  • Design parts so that they are self-aligning

  • Design products into major modules for production

  • Increase component quality to avoid machine jams


Enterprise resource planning

Enterprise Resource Planning

  • ERP needs:

    1. integrates functional areas

    2. support all enterprise process

  • EPR application:

    1.resolves around a single comprehensive

    database, available to the entire organization

    2. Applications may include:

    Financial and accounting information

    HR and payroll information

    Supply chain/Customer/manufacturing information


Enterprise resource planning1

Enterprise Resource Planning

  • Use of ERP

    1. Used by service provider and

    manufacturers

    2. Increasing interoperability in ERP

    systems has promoted acceptance

  • Implementation considerations:

    1. Advantages

    2. Problems


Technology improvement s curve

Technology Improvement S-Curve

Return on Technology

Investment

Early stage

Late stage

Middle stage

Resources Investment

in Technology Development


Technology management readings

Technology Management Readings

(Supplementary:

p.5-9 to 5-10)


Major issues in technology management

Major Issues in Technology Management

  • 1. Automation is not a “cure” to all of

    production problems. Many failure

    cases.

  • 2. Justification of High-technology

    and automation is not a simple work.

    traditional short-term cost analysis is

    no longer appropriate in justifying the

    adoption of high-tech and automation,

    because:


Justification of new technology

Justification of New Technology

  • A. time-lag between high initial cost required at beginning and small and slowly increased benefits at much later.

  • B. organizational learning effect in adopting new technology is coming late and common ignored.

  • C.Many intangible benefits associated with high-tech and automation are very hard to measure and accounted in short time period.


Justification of new technology ii

Justification of New Technology (II)

  • In conclusion, justification decisions must be made based on firm’s long-term strategic advantages over its competitiveness, profitability, improvements in productivity and quality and survival in the marketplace.


Major issues in technology management ii

Major Issues in Technology Management (II)

  • 3.Implementation of high-tech and automation project is often painful, both time and cost are overrun greatly. There is no turnkey project, each system is custom-made, previous experience is not available, even employee training for new system will take longer time than expected

  • 4.Technologies limitations:

  • 5.Managing the changing that resulting from the adoption of high-tech and automation is a new challenge to MGT.


Topic 5

Managing Technological Change

  • Have a master plan for automation.

  • Recognize the risks in automating.

  • Establish a new production technology department

  • Allow ample time for completion of automation.

  • Do not try to automate everything at once.

  • People are the key to making automation successful.

  • Don’t move too slowly in adopting new technology.


Major issues in technology management iii

Major Issues in Technology Management (III)

  • 6. Flexibility? How much?

    Types of flexibility: volume flexibility

    vs. product flexibility.

    Management flexibility:

    * Product mix flexibility/* Mix change flexibility

    * Design change flexibility/* Production flexibility

    Technical flexibility:

    * Routing flexibility/* Machine flexibility

    * Expansion flexibility/* Volume flexibility


Flexibility classification and advantages

Flexibility Classification and Advantages


Creating and applying technology

Creating and Applying Technology

  • Research & development stages

    1.Basic research.

    2.Applied research.

    3.Development: concept development, technical feasibility, detailed product or service design and process design.

  • Technology fusion: Combining several existing technologies and scientific discipline to create a hybrid technology

  • Technology Strategy


Implementation guidelines

Implementation Guidelines

  • Technology acquisition:

    1. how far back in R&D should we

    get involved

    2. internal sources/ inter firm relationships: outsource to universities license from another firm, joint venture or alliance, etc.

    3. suppliers


Implementation guidelines ii

Implementation Guidelines (II)

  • Technology integration:

    1.fragmentation

    2.cross-functional teams and

    concurrent engineering

  • The human side:

    1.Impact of new technology on jobs and

    people

    2.Education and employee involvement

    3.Leadership: good steward, realists, advocate, etc.


Manufacturing automation technologies volume variety trade off

Manufacturing Automation Technologies: Volume-Variety Trade-off

Volume

Fixed Automation:

Transfer line

High

Production flexibility

Flexible Automation:

Computer integrated

manufacturing systems

15,000

Productive capacity

2,000

Programmable

Automation:

Stand

alone NC

Medium

500

25

Low

Variety: Part

Numbers

Per System

1 or 2

100

800

8

Low

Medium

High


Manufacturing automation technologies volume variety trade off1

Manufacturing Automation Technologies: Volume-Variety Trade- off

Production

per Part

Number

Transfer line

High

Production flexibility

15,000

Special

Manufacturing

Systems

Productive capacity

2,000

Flexible

manufacturing

system

Medium

500

Manufacturing

cell

25

Stand alone

Low

Variety: Part

Numbers

Per System

1 or 2

100

800

8

Low

Medium

High


Use technology as a competitive resource

Use Technology as a Competitive Resource

Which create

competitive

advantages

Which may

produce

Invest

  • More quickly

  • More reliable

  • Fine products

  • Profits

  • Meaningful careers

  • Satisfying jobs

  • Community health

  • National progress

  • Cost/ efficiency

  • Delivery cycles

  • Delivery reliability

  • Quality

  • Minimal investment

  • Flexibility for volume

  • change, product change,

  • and technological

  • change

Competitive

Success Measures

Values

Stakeholders

Institution

  • Owners

  • Managers

  • Employees

  • Community

  • Government

In the factory


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