Student depression and school violence
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STUDENT DEPRESSION AND SCHOOL VIOLENCE. The Silent Crisis in our Schools and Communities Marcel Lebrun Ph.D. Plymouth State University April 11, 2008. Scope of Illness. Underlying Causes of Mood Disorders. Personality and Cognitive Styles. DISORDERED THINKING. TEACHER BEHAVIORS.

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STUDENT DEPRESSION AND SCHOOL VIOLENCE

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Student depression and school violence

STUDENT DEPRESSION AND SCHOOL VIOLENCE

The Silent Crisis in our Schools and Communities

Marcel Lebrun Ph.D.

Plymouth State University

April 11, 2008


Scope of illness

Scope of Illness


Underlying causes of mood disorders

Underlying Causes of Mood Disorders


Personality and cognitive styles

Personality and Cognitive Styles


Disordered thinking

DISORDERED THINKING


Teacher behaviors

TEACHER BEHAVIORS


Classroom modifications

CLASSROOM MODIFICATIONS


Environmental

ENVIRONMENTAL


Academic

ACADEMIC


Instructional

INSTRUCTIONAL


Self help measures for depressed students

SELF HELP MEASURES FOR DEPRESSED STUDENTS


First steps

FIRST STEPS


Skills to empowerment

SKILLS TO EMPOWERMENT


Pain to power vocabulary

Pain to Power Vocabulary


Guidelines to success for school and support personnel

Guidelines to success for school and support personnel


Guidelines to success 1

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-1


Guidelines to success 2

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-2


Guidelines to success 3

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-3


Guidelines to success 4

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-4


Guidelines to success 5

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-5


Guidelines to success 6

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-6


Guidelines to success 7

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-7


Guidelines to success 8

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-8


Guidelines to success 9

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-9


Guidelines to success 10

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-10


Guidelines to success 11

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-11


Guidelines to success 12

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-12


Guidelines to success 13

GUIDELINES TO SUCCESS-13


Case study

Case Study

Khalid is a 14-year old male who now lives in a costal fishing area of New Hampshire state. His family, consisting of his father, two younger brothers and a younger sister, moved from Boston, Massachusetts 4 months ago to be near his extended family after his mother died in a car accident 6 months ago. His family had emigrated to America from Syria when he was age 5. He adjusted easily to the move to America, spoke English well, and was very popular. After this move, he finds that he is having difficulty making friends, and often gets into fights. Throughout elementary school and middle school, Khalid was a honor student, and won many awards for his math abilities. He is now having difficulty passing all of his subjects. In middle school, and his first year in high school in NH, Khalid was an avid soccer player, and a well respected member of his team. Now he is no longer interested in soccer at all. Lately, he has been having difficulty sleeping, has lost 25 lbs. In the last 2 months, he spends most of his time alone walking on the nearby beach, not going to school or spending time in his room.


Process of case study

Process of Case Study

  • 1. Identify the Personality style

  • 2. Identify the Pain vocabulary-Cognitive Distortions

  • 3. School Modifications ( environment, instructional, academic if applicable

  • 4. Guidelines for success which ones and how would you go about implementing them

  • 5. Small groups 2-4 people

  • 6. Work time 20-30 minutes


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Once past, a childhood can never be regained. For millions of children, their childhood and their future depend on swift and decisive action being taken now.

  • The State of the World’s Children, 2006

  • ( UNICEF)


References

References

  • Angold,A.,&Costello, E.J.(2001) The epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. In I.M. Goodyer (Ed.), The depressed child and adolescent ( 2nd ed.pp.143-178). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Birhmaher, B.,N.D., Williamson, D.E., Brent,D.A., & Kauffman,J. (1996a) Childhood and adolescent depression: A Review of the past 10 years, Part 11, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, (12), 1575-1583.

  • Kiersey D. & bates M,. (1985).Please Understand Me, The Self Assessment System. Sourcecom

  • Lebrun, M. (2007). Student Depression: A Silent Crisis in our Schools and Communities. Rowman and Litchfield, Maryland.

  • Magg, J.W., &Behrens,J.T. (1989) Depression and cognitive self-statements of learning disabled and seriously disturbed adolescents. Journal of Special Education, 23, 17-27.


School violence

SCHOOL VIOLENCE

THE ANGRY GENERATION


Statistics

STATISTICS

  • The following statistics are from the CDC report for 2007

  • In a 2005 nationally-representative sample of youth in grades 9-12: 35.9% reported being in a physical fight

  • In 2005, more than 721,000 young people ages 10 to 24 were treated in emergency departments for injuries sustained from violence (CDC 2007a).


Continued

continued

  • More students are carrying weapons to school, 18.5% reported carrying a weapon (gun, knife or club), 5.4% carried a gun on one or more days.

  • In a 2005 nationally representative sample of youth in grades 9-12: 13.6% reported being in a physical fight on school property,18.2% of male students and 8.8% of female students reported being in a physical fight on school.

  • In 2005, persons under the age of 25 comprised 44.5% of all persons arrested for violent crime and 53.9% of all persons arrested for property crime in the U.S. (FBI2007).Persons under the age of 25 accounted for 49.6% of those arrested for murder and 62.0% of those arrested for robbery in 2005 (FBI 2007).


Five levels of aggression

FIVE LEVELS OF AGGRESSION

  • Level 1 Noncompliance and/or making threatening statements or gestures

  • Level 2 Causing property damage

  • Level 3 Harming or killing animals

  • Level 4 Physically harming others or self

  • Level 5 Using violence toward people, with the potential for causing serious injury or death


Level 1 warning signs

LEVEL 1 WARNING SIGNS

  • NONCOMPLIANCE

  • Refuses to do actions

  • Whining and crying

  • Sarcastic responses

  • Criticism

  • Teasing

  • THREATS

  • Demanding statements

  • Repetitive behavior meant to annoy

  • Staring and glaring

  • Clenching fist(s)

  • Cursing and yelling

  • Ultimatums

  • Aggressive posturing

  • Verbally threatening


Level 2 warning signs

LEVEL 2 WARNING SIGNS


Level 3 warning signs

LEVEL 3 WARNING SIGNS


Level 4 warning signs

LEVEL 4 WARNING SIGNS


Level 5 warning signs

LEVEL 5 WARNING SIGNS


Assessment

ASSESSMENT

  • What level is this student at?

  • Tonya is 13 years old, arrives at school with new braces. Tonya is at lunch when Tommy takes a piece of foil, puts it on his teeth and smiles at Tonya. “Stop it you asshole,” she yells, throws her lunch tray at Tommy hitting him in the head. She climbs over the table grabs his hair, pulls him on the floor and punches, kicks and bites him. It takes 3 teachers to remove her off Tommy who has a cut on his cheek, swollen eye and a bite mark that needs stitches. She is removed to the office.


Discussion

DISCUSSION

  • PARTNER OR TRIAD

  • THINK OF A STUDENT YOU WORKED WITH RECENTLY

  • 1. CAN YOU IDENTIFY WHERE HE OR SHE IS ON THE LEVEL SYSTEM? IF YES DESCRIBE SIGNS IF NOT WHY?

  • 2. WHAT ARE A LIST OF QUESTIONS YOU HAVE ABOUT THIS STUDENT?

  • 3. WHAT ARE YOUR CONCERNS OR FEARS?


Anger cycle

ANGER CYCLE

THE PATHWAY TO VIOLENCE


Student depression and school violence

Conflict Cycle to Acting-Out Behavior Cycle

Action

Action

Stimulus

Stimulus

Feeling

Feeling

Stimulus

Action

Feeling

Action

Stimulus

Feeling

Thought

Thought

Stimulus

Action

Thought

Action

Feeling

Stimulus

Feeling

Thought


Student depression and school violence

Acting-Out Behavior Cycle

Peak

This phase is characterized by serious disruption and behaviors that often represent a threat to the safety of others. Logical cognitive processes are impaired and impulsive behavior rules

5. Peak

Period of De-escalation

This phase marks the beginning of the student’s disengagement and reduction in severity of behavior. Students are still not especially cooperative or responsive to adult influence

4. Acceleration

Period of Escalation

A time when the student calls upon existing coping skills to resolve a problem presented by a trigger

6. De-escalation

3. Agitation

2. Triggers

1. Calm

7. Recovery

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 1: Calm Behaviors

1. Exhibits on-task behavior

2. Follow rules and expectations

3. Is responsive to praise

4. Initiates positive behavior

5. Is goal-oriented

1. Calm

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 2: Triggers

Non-School-Based

1. Ineffective home environments

2. Health problems

3. Nutritional problems

4. Sleep deprivation

5. Substance abuse

6. Gangs

  • School-Based

  • 1. Conflicts

    • 2. Changes in routines

  • 3. Provocations

  • 4. Pressures

  • 5. Ineffective problem-solving

  • 6. Errors

  • 7. Corrections

2. Triggers

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 3: Agitation

Increases in behavior:

1. Darting eyes

2. Non-conversational language

3. Busy hands

4. Moving in and out of groups

5. Off task, then on-task behavior

Decreases in behavior:

1. Staring into space

2. Subdued language

3. Contained hands

4. Withdrawal from groups

3. Agitation

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 4: Acceleration

1. Questioning and arguing

2. Non compliance and defiance

3. Off-task behavior

4. Provocation of others

5. Compliance with inappropriate behaviors

6. Criterion problems

7. Whining and crying

8. Avoidance and escape

9. Threats and intimidation

10. Verbal abuse

11. Destruction of property

12. Serious behavior in general

4. Acceleration

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 5: Peak

5. Peak

1. Serious destruction of property

2. Assault

3. Self-abuse

4. Severe tantrums

5. Hyperventilation

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 6: De-escalation

6. Is responsive to simple directions

7. Is responsive to manipulative or mechanical tasks

8. Tries to avoid discussion

except to blame

others

1. Is confused and/or disoriented

2. Attempts to withdraw

3. Makes attempts at reconciliation

4. Engages in denial

5. Tries to

blame others

6. De-escalation

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Phase 7: Recovery

1. An eagerness for independent work or activity

2. Subdued behavior in group work

3. Subdued behavior in class discussions

4. Defensive behavior

5. An avoidance of debriefing

7. Recovery

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Student depression and school violence

Applying the Cycle to Your Student

5. Peak

4. Acceleration

6. De-escalation

3. Agitation

Using a student you are currently working with who displays serious acting-out behavior, describe the specific behaviors for each phase of the cycle

2. Triggers

1. Calm

7. Recovery

Time

Sources: Colvin (1992); Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey (1995)


Understanding aggressive behavior the next level

UNDERSTANDING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR: THE NEXT LEVEL

  • SCHOOL SHOOTERS AND SHOOTINGS

  • How does a student move from anger to shooting others?

  • What is in his/her profile?

  • What are the factors contributing to the likeliness that he/she will pull the trigger?


Video

Video

  • During the video document the following information”

  • 1. Triggers

  • 2. Family factors

  • 3. Life experiences that influence the behavior

  • 4. School experiences that influence the behaviors


Profile source national school safety center

PROFILESource: National School Safety Center


Profile continued

PROFILE continued


Three dimensional approach model assessment tool

THREE DIMENSIONAL APPROACHMODEL- ASSESSMENT TOOL


Treatment and interventions

TREATMENT AND INTERVENTIONS

  • INDIVIDUAL STUDENT AGGRESSION LOG

  • Who was present?

  • Trigger (what happened before)

  • Thoughts

  • Feelings

  • Behaviors

  • Consequences


Behavior support plan

BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLAN

  • PLEASE REFER TO HAND OUT

  • If you did not bring a case please use the case study entitled JOHNNY

  • WORKING WITH A PARTNER DEVELOP A MODEL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLAN FOR A STUDENT THAT YOU ARE PRESENTLY WORKING WITH.

  • TIME FRAME 30 MINUTES


Discussion1

DISCUSSION

  • 1. CHALLENGES

  • 2. PLANS TO IMPLEMENT PLAN

  • 3. WORKING WITH TEAMS AND TEACHERS

  • 4. INCLUDING PARENTS


Aware strategy

AWARE STRATEGY

Developed by Dr. Marcel Lebrun

Plymouth State University, 2008


Step 1 assess the situation

Step 1: Assess the Situation


Step 2 what has been done

STEP 2: WHAT HAS BEEN DONE


Step 3 ask questions

STEP 3: ASK QUESTIONS


Step 4 respond

STEP 4: RESPOND


Step 5 evaluate

STEP 5: EVALUATE


This is the end of the presentation

This is the end of the presentation.

Thank you

Contact Information

Dr. Marcel Lebrun Plymouth State University

603-535-2288

Email [email protected]


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