Principles of Aquaculture Diagnostics. Dr. Craig Kasper FAS 2253 Fall 2006. Introduction. Readings from Chapters 1-5 of Noga (1996) What are diagnostic tests?
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Principles of Aquaculture Diagnostics
Dr. Craig Kasper
A series of tests designed to determine the health status of a healthy population of animals vs. that of a population of animals deemed unhealthy. (Healthy vs. sick)
2. Why should they be performed?
Often involves establishing a background or baseline information concerning the health of a population of animals, i.e. parasite load, nutritional status, bacterial exposure.
Anything that is considered abnormal is also known as a lesion.
3. How should these tests be performed?
Hopefully, under strict guidelines using quality control and S.O.P’s with a list of written procedures! But doesn’t always happen.
Look for American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians accreditation (ADVLD).
4. Who is qualified to perform these tests?
a. Two issues should be addressed here, esp. if you are the one performing the tests.
i. Moral = Can I do it? (I might actually have the skills.)
ii. Legal = Am I licensed to do it? (Can I testify in court? Am I liable if I am wrong? Rem: drugs, pharmacy, licenses, etc.
What would I need? DVM, Ph. D., affiliation with university or organization (lab), ACVP, Diplomate, AFS –pay dues for being a fish health inspector!
5. What should be included in the diagnostic evaluation?
c. Environment, i.e. water quality, feed
d. Questions for the producer/owner!
May be the most important piece of information.
“Your fish have a clear case of acute multifocal necrotizing supperative hepatisis!”
WHAT??? Translation PLEASE!!
Acute multifocal necrotizing supperative hepatitis
Time location dead neutraphils inflammation
cells of the liver
“A rapid onset of dead white blood cells throughout an inflammed liver, put simply your fish have bacterial hepatitis!”
Why didn’t you just say so?
6.What is the final outcome of the diagnostics?
a. Morphological Diagnosis (only?)
b. Recommendations re: husbandry?
c. Treatment recommendations?
d. Changes in facilities, environment?
e. LABS WON’T PERFORM TESTS TO DETERMINE IF FISH ARE SAFE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.
b. Physical Examination
c. Clinical Signs
d. Gross lesions
e. Cytologic evaluation
h. Ancillary testing
Toxicology (water and animal samples)
Clinical pathology (serum chemistries, hematology)j
Must have sufficient number or diagnosis is meaningless.
*Based on assumed 5% prevalence level in the population.
NO!Clinical signs and lesions suggest to you the possible disease processes. The diagnosis can only be “made” by isolating or demonstrating the presence of the pathogenic organism with a concurrent disease process.