Esca of grapevines in south africa
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ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA. Presented by Jan Booysen. Chana-Lee White Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert . What is Esca?. Affects trunk and arms of older grapevines Disease complex producing overall syndrome 2 distinct diseases Wood rot Brown wood streaking .

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Esca of grapevines in south africa

ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA

Presented by JanBooysen

Chana-Lee White

Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert


What is esca
What is Esca?

  • Affects trunk and arms of older grapevines

  • Disease complex producing overall syndrome

  • 2 distinct diseases

    • Wood rot

    • Brown wood streaking


History of esca in south africa
History of Esca in South Africa

  • Little information on Esca

  • Few incidences found

  • Only symptoms observed

  • Since 2001, Esca diseased vines have been collected and causal fungi isolated








Aims and current study
Aims and Current Study

  • Determine and characterize basidiomycetes involved

  • Identify other fungi involved

    • Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis, Phaeoacremonium, Phaeomoniella

  • Geographical distribution of species


Isolations
Isolations

  • Farms in the Western and Northern Cape visited

  • Isolations

  • Cultures selected


Distribution of esca diseased vines
Distribution of esca diseased vines

ZIMBABWE

ZIMBABWE

MOZAMBIQUE

NORTHERN PROVINCE

LIMPOPO

BOTSWANA

BOTSWANA

MPUMALANGA

MPUMALANGA

GAUTENG

GAUTENG

NORTH WEST

NORTH WEST

SWAZILAND

SWAZILAND

NAMIBIA

NAMIBIA

KWAZULU-NATAL

KWAZULU-NATAL

FREE STATE

FREE STATE

LESOTHO

LESOTHO

NORTHERN CAPE

NORTHERN CAPE

EASTERN CAPE

EASTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE



Young esca
Young Esca

  • 2-year-old vine from Paarl




Basidiomycetes characterization
Basidiomycetes characterization

  • 140 isolates used

  • Sequencing of ITS region using ITS1 and ITS4

  • New species identification


Phylogram of ITS

Heuristic search

1000 bootstrap

Fomitiporia

Innonotus

Inocutis

Unknown


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Esca is widespread on grapevines in SA, occurring mostly on grapevines of 10yrs and older

  • A species-complex of 7 Basidiomycete species

  • Predominant species: Inocutis sp.

    Fomitiporia sp.


Outcomes
Outcomes

  • Better understanding of Esca in South Africa

  • Aid in development of control strategies

  • Aid in developing early detection tools


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • NRF and Winetech for funding

  • Personnel at ARC-Nietvoorbji for technical support


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