Esca of grapevines in south africa
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ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA. Presented by Jan Booysen. Chana-Lee White Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert . What is Esca?. Affects trunk and arms of older grapevines Disease complex producing overall syndrome 2 distinct diseases Wood rot Brown wood streaking .

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ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA

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ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA

Presented by JanBooysen

Chana-Lee White

Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert


What is Esca?

  • Affects trunk and arms of older grapevines

  • Disease complex producing overall syndrome

  • 2 distinct diseases

    • Wood rot

    • Brown wood streaking


History of Esca in South Africa

  • Little information on Esca

  • Few incidences found

  • Only symptoms observed

  • Since 2001, Esca diseased vines have been collected and causal fungi isolated


In the field…


Symptoms: Leaves


Symptoms: Leaves


Symptoms: Berries


Symptoms:


Symptoms: Apoplexy


Aims and Current Study

  • Determine and characterize basidiomycetes involved

  • Identify other fungi involved

    • Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis, Phaeoacremonium, Phaeomoniella

  • Geographical distribution of species


Isolations

  • Farms in the Western and Northern Cape visited

  • Isolations

  • Cultures selected


Distribution of esca diseased vines

ZIMBABWE

ZIMBABWE

MOZAMBIQUE

NORTHERN PROVINCE

LIMPOPO

BOTSWANA

BOTSWANA

MPUMALANGA

MPUMALANGA

GAUTENG

GAUTENG

NORTH WEST

NORTH WEST

SWAZILAND

SWAZILAND

NAMIBIA

NAMIBIA

KWAZULU-NATAL

KWAZULU-NATAL

FREE STATE

FREE STATE

LESOTHO

LESOTHO

NORTHERN CAPE

NORTHERN CAPE

EASTERN CAPE

EASTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE


Age of vines sampled


Young Esca

  • 2-year-old vine from Paarl


Organisms Involved


Basidiocarps


Basidiomycetes characterization

  • 140 isolates used

  • Sequencing of ITS region using ITS1 and ITS4

  • New species identification


Phylogram of ITS

Heuristic search

1000 bootstrap

Fomitiporia

Innonotus

Inocutis

Unknown


Conclusions

  • Esca is widespread on grapevines in SA, occurring mostly on grapevines of 10yrs and older

  • A species-complex of 7 Basidiomycete species

  • Predominant species:Inocutis sp.

    Fomitiporia sp.


Outcomes

  • Better understanding of Esca in South Africa

  • Aid in development of control strategies

  • Aid in developing early detection tools


Acknowledgements

  • NRF and Winetech for funding

  • Personnel at ARC-Nietvoorbji for technical support


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