Esca of grapevines in south africa
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ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA. Presented by Jan Booysen. Chana-Lee White Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert . What is Esca?. Affects trunk and arms of older grapevines Disease complex producing overall syndrome 2 distinct diseases Wood rot Brown wood streaking .

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ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA

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Esca of grapevines in south africa

ESCA OF GRAPEVINES IN SOUTH AFRICA

Presented by JanBooysen

Chana-Lee White

Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert


What is esca

What is Esca?

  • Affects trunk and arms of older grapevines

  • Disease complex producing overall syndrome

  • 2 distinct diseases

    • Wood rot

    • Brown wood streaking


History of esca in south africa

History of Esca in South Africa

  • Little information on Esca

  • Few incidences found

  • Only symptoms observed

  • Since 2001, Esca diseased vines have been collected and causal fungi isolated


In the field

In the field…


Symptoms leaves

Symptoms: Leaves


Symptoms leaves1

Symptoms: Leaves


Symptoms berries

Symptoms: Berries


Symptoms

Symptoms:


Symptoms apoplexy

Symptoms: Apoplexy


Aims and current study

Aims and Current Study

  • Determine and characterize basidiomycetes involved

  • Identify other fungi involved

    • Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis, Phaeoacremonium, Phaeomoniella

  • Geographical distribution of species


Isolations

Isolations

  • Farms in the Western and Northern Cape visited

  • Isolations

  • Cultures selected


Distribution of esca diseased vines

Distribution of esca diseased vines

ZIMBABWE

ZIMBABWE

MOZAMBIQUE

NORTHERN PROVINCE

LIMPOPO

BOTSWANA

BOTSWANA

MPUMALANGA

MPUMALANGA

GAUTENG

GAUTENG

NORTH WEST

NORTH WEST

SWAZILAND

SWAZILAND

NAMIBIA

NAMIBIA

KWAZULU-NATAL

KWAZULU-NATAL

FREE STATE

FREE STATE

LESOTHO

LESOTHO

NORTHERN CAPE

NORTHERN CAPE

EASTERN CAPE

EASTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE


Age of vines sampled

Age of vines sampled


Young esca

Young Esca

  • 2-year-old vine from Paarl


Organisms involved

Organisms Involved


Basidiocarps

Basidiocarps


Basidiomycetes characterization

Basidiomycetes characterization

  • 140 isolates used

  • Sequencing of ITS region using ITS1 and ITS4

  • New species identification


Esca of grapevines in south africa

Phylogram of ITS

Heuristic search

1000 bootstrap

Fomitiporia

Innonotus

Inocutis

Unknown


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Esca is widespread on grapevines in SA, occurring mostly on grapevines of 10yrs and older

  • A species-complex of 7 Basidiomycete species

  • Predominant species:Inocutis sp.

    Fomitiporia sp.


Outcomes

Outcomes

  • Better understanding of Esca in South Africa

  • Aid in development of control strategies

  • Aid in developing early detection tools


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • NRF and Winetech for funding

  • Personnel at ARC-Nietvoorbji for technical support


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