Communication integration and homeostasis
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis. 6. About this Chapter. Cell-to-cell communication Signal pathways Novel signal molecules Modulation of signal pathways Control pathways Response loops Feedback loops. Cell-to-Cell Communication: Overview. Physiological signals

Download Presentation

Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Communication integration and homeostasis

Communication, Integration,and Homeostasis

6


About this chapter

About this Chapter

  • Cell-to-cell communication

  • Signal pathways

  • Novel signal molecules

  • Modulation of signal pathways

  • Control pathways

    • Response loops

    • Feedback loops


Cell to cell communication overview

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Overview

  • Physiological signals

    • Electrical signals

      • Changes in cell’s membrane potential

    • Chemical signals

      • Secreted by cells into ECF

      • Responsible for most communication within the body

  • Target cells, or targets, receive signals

  • Four basic methods of communication


Cell to cell communication methods

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods

Direct contact and local cell-to-cell communication

Gap junctions transfer both chemical and electrical signals

Figure 6-1a


Cell to cell communication methods1

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods

Direct contact and local cell-to-cell communication

CAMs transfer signals in both directions

Figure 6-1b


Cell to cell communication methods2

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods

Paracrine and autocrine are chemical signals

Figure 6-1c


Cell to cell communication methods3

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods

Long distance cell-to-cell communication

Figure 6-2a


Cell to cell communication methods4

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods

Neurotransmitters have a rapid effect

Figure 6-2b


Cell to cell communication methods5

Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods

Figure 6-2c


Signal pathways overview

Signal Pathways: Overview

Figure 6-3


Signal pathways receptor locations

Signal Pathways: Receptor locations

Target cell receptors

Figure 6-4 (1 of 2)


Signal pathways receptor locations1

Signal Pathways: Receptor locations

Figure 6-4 (2 of 2)


Signal pathways membrane receptors

Signal Pathways: Membrane Receptors

Four categories of membrane receptors

Figure 6-5


Signal pathways signal amplification

Signal Pathways: Signal Amplification

Transducers convert extracellular signals into intracellular messages which create a response

Figure 6-7


Signal pathway biological signal transduction

Signal Pathway: Biological Signal Transduction

Figure 6-8


Signal pathway signal transduction

Signal Pathway: Signal Transduction

Steps of a cascade

Steps of signal transduction pathway form a cascade

Figure 6-9


Signal pathway receptor enzymes

Signal Pathway: Receptor Enzymes

Tyrosine kinase, an example of receptor-enzyme

Figure 6-10


Signal pathway gpcr

Signal Pathway: GPCR

  • Membrane-spanning proteins

  • Cytoplasmic tail linked to G protein, a three-part transducer molecule

  • When G proteins are activated, they

    • Open ion channels in the membrane

    • Alter enzyme activity on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane


Gpcr adenylyl cyclase camp

GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP

Signal molecule binds to

G protein-linked receptor,

which activates the G protein.

1

One signal

molecule

G protein-

coupled

receptor

1

Adenylyl

cyclase

2

G protein turns on adenylyl

cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.

2

3

ATP

G protein

3

Adenylyl cyclase converts

ATP to cyclic AMP.

cAMP

4

4

cAMP activates protein

kinase A.

Protein

kinase A

5

5

Protein kinase A

phosphorylates other

proteins, leading ultimately

to a cellular response.

Phosphorylated

protein

Cell

response

The G protein-coupled adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system

Figure 6-11


Gpcr adenylyl cyclase camp1

GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP

Signal molecule binds to

G protein-linked receptor,

which activates the G protein.

1

One signal

molecule

G protein-

coupled

receptor

1

G protein

Figure 6-11, step 1


Gpcr adenylyl cyclase camp2

GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP

Signal molecule binds to

G protein-linked receptor,

which activates the G protein.

1

One signal

molecule

G protein-

coupled

receptor

1

Adenylyl

cyclase

2

G protein turns on adenylyl

cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.

2

G protein

Figure 6-11, steps 1–2


Gpcr adenylyl cyclase camp3

GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP

Signal molecule binds to

G protein-linked receptor,

which activates the G protein.

1

One signal

molecule

G protein-

coupled

receptor

1

Adenylyl

cyclase

2

G protein turns on adenylyl

cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.

2

3

ATP

G protein

3

Adenylyl cyclase converts

ATP to cyclic AMP.

cAMP

Figure 6-11, steps 1–3


Gpcr adenylyl cyclase camp4

GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP

Signal molecule binds to

G protein-linked receptor,

which activates the G protein.

1

One signal

molecule

G protein-

coupled

receptor

1

Adenylyl

cyclase

2

G protein turns on adenylyl

cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.

2

3

ATP

G protein

3

Adenylyl cyclase converts

ATP to cyclic AMP.

cAMP

4

4

cAMP activates protein

kinase A.

Protein

kinase A

Figure 6-11, steps 1–4


Gpcr adenylyl cyclase camp5

GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP

Signal molecule binds to

G protein-linked receptor,

which activates the G protein.

1

One signal

molecule

G protein-

coupled

receptor

1

Adenylyl

cyclase

2

G protein turns on adenylyl

cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.

2

3

ATP

G protein

3

Adenylyl cyclase converts

ATP to cyclic AMP.

cAMP

4

4

cAMP activates protein

kinase A.

Protein

kinase A

5

5

Protein kinase A

phosphorylates other

proteins, leading ultimately

to a cellular response.

Phosphorylated

protein

Cell

response

Figure 6-11, steps 1–5


Gpcr the phospholipase c system

GPCR: The Phospholipase C System

Signal

molecule

Extracellular

fluid

1

Membrane phospholipid

Cell

membrane

3

2

4

PL-C

DAG

PK-C

Intracellular

fluid

Protein + Pi

Receptor

IP3

G protein

5

KEY

Phosphorylated

protein

PL-C=phospholipase C

DAG=diacylglycerol

PK-C=protein kinase C

IP3=inositol

trisphosphate

ER=endoplasmic

reticulum

Ca2+ stores

Ca2+

ER

Cellular

response

1

2

3

4

5

DAG activates protein

kinase C (PK-C), which

phosphorylates

proteins.

IP3 causes release

of Ca2+ from

organelles,

creating a

Ca2+ signal.

Signal molecule

activates receptor

and associated

G protein.

G protein activates

phospholipase C

(PL-C), an amplifier

enzyme.

PL-C converts membrane

phospholipids into

diacylglycerol (DAG), which

remains in the membrane,

and IP3, which diffuses

into the cytoplasm.

Figure 6-12


Gpcr the phospholipase c system1

GPCR: The Phospholipase C System

Signal

molecule

Extracellular

fluid

1

Cell

membrane

Intracellular

fluid

Receptor

G protein

KEY

PL-C=phospholipase C

DAG=diacylglycerol

PK-C=protein kinase C

IP3=inositol

trisphosphate

ER=endoplasmic

reticulum

1

Signal molecule

activates receptor

and associated

G protein.

Figure 6-12, step 1


Gpcr the phospholipase c system2

GPCR: The Phospholipase C System

Signal

molecule

Extracellular

fluid

1

Cell

membrane

2

PL-C

Intracellular

fluid

Receptor

G protein

KEY

PL-C=phospholipase C

DAG=diacylglycerol

PK-C=protein kinase C

IP3=inositol

trisphosphate

ER=endoplasmic

reticulum

1

2

Signal molecule

activates receptor

and associated

G protein.

G protein activates

phospholipase C

(PL-C), an amplifier

enzyme.

Figure 6-12, steps 1–2


Gpcr the phospholipase c system3

GPCR: The Phospholipase C System

Signal

molecule

Extracellular

fluid

1

Membrane phospholipid

Cell

membrane

3

2

PL-C

DAG

Intracellular

fluid

Receptor

IP3

G protein

KEY

PL-C=phospholipase C

DAG=diacylglycerol

PK-C=protein kinase C

IP3=inositol

trisphosphate

ER=endoplasmic

reticulum

1

2

3

Signal molecule

activates receptor

and associated

G protein.

G protein activates

phospholipase C

(PL-C), an amplifier

enzyme.

PL-C converts membrane

phospholipids into

diacylglycerol (DAG), which

remains in the membrane,

and IP3, which diffuses

into the cytoplasm.

Figure 6-12, steps 1–3


Gpcr the phospholipase c system4

GPCR: The Phospholipase C System

Signal

molecule

Extracellular

fluid

1

Membrane phospholipid

Cell

membrane

3

2

4

PL-C

DAG

PK-C

Intracellular

fluid

Protein + Pi

Receptor

IP3

G protein

KEY

Phosphorylated

protein

PL-C=phospholipase C

DAG=diacylglycerol

PK-C=protein kinase C

IP3=inositol

trisphosphate

ER=endoplasmic

reticulum

Cellular

response

1

2

3

4

DAG activates protein

kinase C (PK-C), which

phosphorylates

proteins.

Signal molecule

activates receptor

and associated

G protein.

G protein activates

phospholipase C

(PL-C), an amplifier

enzyme.

PL-C converts membrane

phospholipids into

diacylglycerol (DAG), which

remains in the membrane,

and IP3, which diffuses

into the cytoplasm.

Figure 6-12, steps 1–4


Gpcr the phospholipase c system5

GPCR: The Phospholipase C System

Signal

molecule

Extracellular

fluid

1

Membrane phospholipid

Cell

membrane

3

2

4

PL-C

DAG

PK-C

Intracellular

fluid

Protein + Pi

Receptor

IP3

G protein

5

KEY

Phosphorylated

protein

PL-C=phospholipase C

DAG=diacylglycerol

PK-C=protein kinase C

IP3=inositol

trisphosphate

ER=endoplasmic

reticulum

Ca2+ stores

Ca2+

ER

Cellular

response

1

2

3

4

5

DAG activates protein

kinase C (PK-C), which

phosphorylates

proteins.

IP3 causes release

of Ca2+ from

organelles,

creating a

Ca2+ signal.

Signal molecule

activates receptor

and associated

G protein.

G protein activates

phospholipase C

(PL-C), an amplifier

enzyme.

PL-C converts membrane

phospholipids into

diacylglycerol (DAG), which

remains in the membrane,

and IP3, which diffuses

into the cytoplasm.

Figure 6-12, steps 1–5


Signal pathway receptor channel

Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel

Extracellular

signal

molecules

Ions

Receptor-channels open or

close in response to signal

molecule binding.

1

1

G protein-

coupled

receptor

Ion

channel

2

Some channels are directly

linked to G proteins.

2

G protein

Other ligand-gated channels

respond to intracellular

second messenger.

3

Change in membrane

permeability to

Na+, K+, Cl–

3

Intracellular

signal molecules

Creates electrical

signal

Voltage-sensitive

protein

Cellular

response

How ions create electrical signals

Figure 6-13


Signal pathway receptor channel1

Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel

Extracellular

signal

molecules

Ions

Receptor-channels open or

close in response to signal

molecule binding.

1

1

Ion

channel

Figure 6-13, step 1


Signal pathway receptor channel2

Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel

Extracellular

signal

molecules

Ions

Receptor-channels open or

close in response to signal

molecule binding.

1

1

G protein-

coupled

receptor

Ion

channel

2

Some channels are directly

linked to G proteins.

2

G protein

Figure 6-13, steps 1–2


Signal pathway receptor channel3

Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel

Extracellular

signal

molecules

Ions

Receptor-channels open or

close in response to signal

molecule binding.

1

1

G protein-

coupled

receptor

Ion

channel

2

Some channels are directly

linked to G proteins.

2

G protein

Other ligand-gated channels

respond to intracellular

second messenger.

3

3

Intracellular

signal molecules

Figure 6-13, steps 1–3


Signal pathway receptor channel4

Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel

Extracellular

signal

molecules

Ions

Receptor-channels open or

close in response to signal

molecule binding.

1

1

G protein-

coupled

receptor

Ion

channel

2

Some channels are directly

linked to G proteins.

2

G protein

Other ligand-gated channels

respond to intracellular

second messenger.

3

Change in membrane

permeability to

Na+, K+, Cl–

3

Intracellular

signal molecules

Creates electrical

signal

Voltage-sensitive

protein

Cellular

response

Figure 6-13


Signal pathway signal transduction1

Signal Pathway: Signal Transduction

Summary map of signal transduction systems

Figure 6-14


  • Login