A Solar System within
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A Solar System within. a Solar System. Physical Properties. EarthJupiter Mass 1 318 kg 5.97x10 24 1.899x10 27. Physical Properties. EarthJupiter Radius 1 11.2 equatorial 6378 71,492 polar 6357 66,854

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A solar system within

A Solar System within

a Solar System


Physical properties

Physical Properties

EarthJupiter

  • Mass 1 318

    kg 5.97x1024 1.899x1027


Physical properties1

Physical Properties

EarthJupiter

  • Radius 1 11.2

    equatorial 6378 71,492

    polar 6357 66,854

  • Oblateness0.0030.065

Equatorial radius – polar radius Equatorial radius


Physical properties2

Physical Properties

  • Density100%24.0%

    kg/m3 55151326

  • Jupiter’s density is only 1.3 x water’s density.


A truly wicked magnetic field

A Truly Wicked Magnetic Field

  • Jupiter’s magnetic field is the strongest and largest, next to the sun’s.

  • It’s so large that it interacts with the Jovian moons (electrically), and even stretches out as far as Saturn.


A solar system within

Field is 14Xstronger

than earth’s

field at the

equator…

4.2 Gauss

vs. 0.3

Gauss.


How is a strong field compatible with the low density

How is a strong field compatible with the low density?

  • Chemical composition

    • 90% H by volume (75% by mass)

    • 10% He by volume (25% by mass)

    • <1% of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and ammonium hydrosulfide (bright colors)


What is the conductor

What is the conductor?

  • At the high pressures found in Jupiter’s interior, hydrogen gas becomes a liquid metal, and therefore electrically conductive.

  • At least 1.4 Megabars of pressure are required.


Metallic hydrogen

Metallic Hydrogen

  • Metallic hydrogen has been produced in a lab by shock compressing gaseous H.

  • Here’s a website from the researchers that first made metallic H if you’d like to read further:

    https://www.llnl.gov/str/Nellis.html


Orbit

Orbit

  • Average distance from the sun:

    778.6 million km (5.2 A.U.)

  • Perihelion: 740.5 million km

  • Aphelion: 816.6 million km

  • Orbit Eccentricity: 0.049


Orbit 2

Orbit (2)

  • Orbital Period: 11.86 years

    • Orbital Velocity: 13.1 km/s

  • Inclination of orbit to ecliptic: 1.3o

    • We have modern evidence that Jupiter’s been the target of collisions with other bodies.


Rotation

Rotation

  • Rotational Period: 9.93 hours

    • Axis is tilted 3.1o to the orbit.

    • How was this measured? (3 ways)

  • Homework question: A point on earth’s equator rotates with an eastward velocity of about 1670 km/hour (464 m/s). Calculate the eastward velocity of a point on Jupiter’s equator.


Rotation s effect on jupiter s weather

Rotation’s Effect on Jupiter’s Weather

  • No surface N-S convective cells

  • Belts (upwelling gas, darker stripes)**

  • Zones (sinking gas, lighter stripes)**

    • Gas flow is in opposite directions

  • Differential rotation

    • Faster at equator (9h 50m)

    • Slower at poles (9h 56m)

      **new result from Cassini spacecraft


Unanswered questions

Unanswered Questions

  • Turbulence and atmospheric friction should have bled off much of Jupiter’s rotational energy, by converting it to kinetic energy in the atmosphere and raising the atmosphere’s temperature.

  • Yet Jupiter still rotates very quickly, and the upper atmosphere is cold. Why?


More rotational effects

More Rotational Effects

  • Great Red Spot

    • first observed in 1664 by Robert Hooke

    • size, color, shape changes regularly

    • predatory!

  • Great Red Spot Junior

  • White Ovals


A solar system within

Great Red Spot movie

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap001123.html


All the gas giants have rings

All the Gas Giants have rings!

  • Jupiter has a set of 4 rings

    • much less substantial than Saturn’s rings

    • only visible by backlighting

    • Discovered by Voyager 1

    • Formed from dust blasted off 4 small inner moons by impacts (Amalthea, Andrastea, Metis, Thebe)


A solar system within

The backlit rings are totally inside Io’s orbit.


The satellites

The Satellites

  • 4 Galilean Moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto

  • 44 Named asteroidal moons

  • 15 as-yet-unnamed asteroidal moons


A solar system within

The orbits of the moons are in resonance

with one another.

All 4 moons orbit in synchronous rotation.


Moon data

Moon Data

IoEuropaGanymede Callisto

Radius 1821 1561 2631 2410

(km)

Density 3530 3010 1940 1830

(kg/m3)

Orbit 5.9 9.4 15.0 26.3

Radius

(Rj)


A solar system within

Io

  • More than 80 erupting volcanoes.

  • Surface is entirely sulfur and sulfur compounds.

  • Volcanoes spew sulfur dioxide, which “rains” back onto the surface.

    • Electrically conductive sulfur and oxygen ions escape Io’s gravity, and orbit Jupiter in a torus.


Tvashtar eruption movie

Tvashtar Eruption Movie

  • Planetary Society


A solar system within

The Io Plasma Torus rotates along withJupiter’s magnetic field, once every 10 hours.

Jupiter’s magnetic field is not aligned perfectly

with its spin axis, so the torus has a “wobble”.


A solar system within

A movie of the Io Plasma Torus

http://haydenplanetarium.org/resources/ava/page/index.php?file=P0404juptorus

An electrical current flows from Jupiter toIo and back again: 2 trillion watts of power.

This current flows through the Flux Tube.


A solar system within

When Io is properly

aligned, this current emits

radio signals at around

20.1 MHz.

(Radio Jove Project)


Why hasn t io cooled off

Why hasn’t Io cooled off?

  • Io is about the same size and mass as the earth’s moon.

  • Our moon shows no current volcanic activity.

  • Why isn’t Io in the same state?


Europa

Europa

  • Salty ice crust – the flattest surface of any

    planet or moon in the solar system

  • Subsurface liquid or slushy ocean?

  • Linea or tectonic cracks

  • Few craters


A solar system within

Minos

Linea

Region


Ganymede

Ganymede

  • The largest moon in the solar system

    • larger than Mercury and Pluto

  • Icy crust

    • Older, heavily-cratered dark regions.

    • Younger, lighter-colored terrain, where liquid water has erupted from beneath the surface.


Ganymede s interior

Ganymede’s Interior

  • Mottled, grooved surface

  • Evidence that subsurface water has erupted onto the surface

  • A metallic core with an icy mantle is implied.

  • (Rocky outcrops under the ice)


Callisto

Callisto

  • Heavily cratered icy surface indicates that the surface is original, not changed by tectonic processes.

  • This implies that Callisto may have no core, or may be incompletely differentiated (layered).


Palimpsests

Palimpsests

  • Palimpsest (ghost craters)

    • ice rebounds slowly after impact

    • crater is filled back to original surface elevation

    • leaves behind only a crater “fingerprint”

    • Name comes from a re-used writing parchment.


A solar system within

The Valhalla palimpsest – as big as the U.S.


A solar system within

Palimpsest –

a parchment partly

erased and reused.

The former ghostly

writing shows

through underneath.


Only 6 missions

Only 6 Missions

  • Pioneer 10 – launched early 1972, flyby Dec., 1973.

    • first mission to pass through the asteroid belt.

    • first mission to photograph Jupiter, just 130,000 km above cloud tops.

    • last signal received 2003

  • Pioneer 11 – launched 1973, flyby 1979

    • took photos of Jupiter & Great Red Spot


Voyager

Voyager

  • Voyager 1 – 1977, flyby 1980

    • studied and photographed Jupiter’s moons

    • currently the most distant man-made spacecraft, 100 A.U.

  • Voyager 2 – 1977, flyby 1981

    • studied and photographed GRS and Io’s volcanism


Galileo

Galileo

  • Launched 1989

  • Problems with main antenna, computers

  • Made 34 orbits through Jovian system

  • Sent a probe into Jupiter’s upper atmosphere

  • Purposely crashed into Jupiter in 2003 so it wouldn’t accidentally crash into Europa and possibly contaminate that moon


Galileo science highlights

Galileo science highlights

  • Enormous thunderstorms within Jupiter’s upper atmosphere

  • Studied Io’s volcanism

  • Found even stronger evidence for Europa’s subsurface ocean

  • Found that Ganymede has its own magnetic field

  • Callisto may also have a subsurface ocean and a magnetic field


Cassini

Cassini

  • Primarily a mission to Saturn.

  • Made a flyby of Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 (the Millenium Flyby)

  • Unusual that two U.S. spacecraft on independent missions were observing another planet at the same time.


A solar system within

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/jupiterfact.html

http://www.blue-cosmos.de/system/jupiter.html

http://www.pa.msu.edu/people/horvatin/Images/Planets/jupiter/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:OblateSpheroid.PNG

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/sim/jupiter-earth-browse.jpg

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/jgifs/Jupiterearthsun.GIF

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/jupiter/images/jupiter_magneto_small.jpg

http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/BrauImNew/Chap11/FG11_13.jpg

http://ase.tufts.edu/cosmos/pictures/Explore_figs_5/Chapter3/Fig3_16.jpg

http://www.astrophysicsspectator.com/topics/planets/JupiterMagnetosphere.html

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/jupiter_elements_991117.html

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0311/jupiterp_cassini_full.jpg

http://quest.nasa.gov/galileo/features/data.html

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/graphics/230-1226B_s.gif

http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/BrauImNew/Chap11/FG11_10.jpg

http://astro.gmu.edu/classes/a10594/notes/l20/l20.html

http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/~haller/ast_160/copy/jupiter_rot.jpg

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/jupiter/images/belts_zones_disc.gif

http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/PIA00014.jpg

http://www.universetoday.com/category/jupiter/

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/jupiter/images/J_moon_orbits.gif

http://www.mysciencesite.com/sse_moon_sizes.jpg


A solar system within

http://www.pa.msu.edu/people/horvatin/Images/Planets/jupiter/Io.jpg

http://www.unet.univie.ac.at/~a9503672/astro/grafiken/solar/volcano-on-io.jpg

http://vega.lpl.arizona.edu/iotorus/iotorus-frame.html

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/jovian_moons/promdisk.jpg

http://ufro1.astro.ufl.edu/iotorus.jpg

http://www.planetaryexploration.net/jupiter/io/images/jupiter_aurora_01257.jpg

http://hal.physast.uga.edu/~jss/1010/ch11/

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/mess41/images/min_lineargn.gif

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/9903/ganymede_galmosaic_big.jpg

http://slamdunk.geol.ucl.ac.uk/~brodholt/B165/Figures/Planets/chaos_europa.jpg

http://www.astr.ua.edu/ay102/Lab5/Jupiter/callisto.jpg

http://planetscapes.com/art/browse/calint.jpg

http://www.oulu.fi/astronomy/planetology/TerrPlanets/Pl1_2001/T_Suokas/valhalla.gif

http://www.dexus-hosting.cz/o-dexus/pojmenovani-serveru/_img/callisto/valhalla.jpg

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/graphics/rings.gif

http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/sept98/rings/300/jupmos.GIF

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/jupiter/space_missions.html

http://quest.nasa.gov/sso/cool/pioneer10/graphics/lasher/slide2lg.gif

http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/

http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov/discovery.cfm

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/galileo.jpg

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/Galileo_Diagram.jpg

http://www.spacetoday.org/SolSys/Jupiter/JupiterCassini.html


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