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A Solar System within. a Solar System. Physical Properties. Earth Jupiter Mass 1 318 kg 5.97x10 24 1.899x10 27. Physical Properties. Earth Jupiter Radius 1 11.2 equatorial 6378 71,492 polar 6357 66,854

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A Solar System within

a Solar System


Physical properties
Physical Properties

Earth Jupiter

  • Mass 1 318

    kg 5.97x1024 1.899x1027


Physical properties1
Physical Properties

Earth Jupiter

  • Radius 1 11.2

    equatorial 6378 71,492

    polar 6357 66,854

  • Oblateness 0.003 0.065

Equatorial radius – polar radius Equatorial radius


Physical properties2
Physical Properties

  • Density 100% 24.0%

    kg/m3 5515 1326

  • Jupiter’s density is only 1.3 x water’s density.


A truly wicked magnetic field
A Truly Wicked Magnetic Field

  • Jupiter’s magnetic field is the strongest and largest, next to the sun’s.

  • It’s so large that it interacts with the Jovian moons (electrically), and even stretches out as far as Saturn.


Field is 14Xstronger

than earth’s

field at the

equator…

4.2 Gauss

vs. 0.3

Gauss.


How is a strong field compatible with the low density
How is a strong field compatible with the low density?

  • Chemical composition

    • 90% H by volume (75% by mass)

    • 10% He by volume (25% by mass)

    • <1% of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and ammonium hydrosulfide (bright colors)


What is the conductor
What is the conductor?

  • At the high pressures found in Jupiter’s interior, hydrogen gas becomes a liquid metal, and therefore electrically conductive.

  • At least 1.4 Megabars of pressure are required.


Metallic hydrogen
Metallic Hydrogen

  • Metallic hydrogen has been produced in a lab by shock compressing gaseous H.

  • Here’s a website from the researchers that first made metallic H if you’d like to read further:

    https://www.llnl.gov/str/Nellis.html


Orbit
Orbit

  • Average distance from the sun:

    778.6 million km (5.2 A.U.)

  • Perihelion: 740.5 million km

  • Aphelion: 816.6 million km

  • Orbit Eccentricity: 0.049


Orbit 2
Orbit (2)

  • Orbital Period: 11.86 years

    • Orbital Velocity: 13.1 km/s

  • Inclination of orbit to ecliptic: 1.3o

    • We have modern evidence that Jupiter’s been the target of collisions with other bodies.


Rotation
Rotation

  • Rotational Period: 9.93 hours

    • Axis is tilted 3.1o to the orbit.

    • How was this measured? (3 ways)

  • Homework question: A point on earth’s equator rotates with an eastward velocity of about 1670 km/hour (464 m/s). Calculate the eastward velocity of a point on Jupiter’s equator.


Rotation s effect on jupiter s weather
Rotation’s Effect on Jupiter’s Weather

  • No surface N-S convective cells

  • Belts (upwelling gas, darker stripes)**

  • Zones (sinking gas, lighter stripes)**

    • Gas flow is in opposite directions

  • Differential rotation

    • Faster at equator (9h 50m)

    • Slower at poles (9h 56m)

      **new result from Cassini spacecraft


Unanswered questions
Unanswered Questions

  • Turbulence and atmospheric friction should have bled off much of Jupiter’s rotational energy, by converting it to kinetic energy in the atmosphere and raising the atmosphere’s temperature.

  • Yet Jupiter still rotates very quickly, and the upper atmosphere is cold. Why?


More rotational effects
More Rotational Effects

  • Great Red Spot

    • first observed in 1664 by Robert Hooke

    • size, color, shape changes regularly

    • predatory!

  • Great Red Spot Junior

  • White Ovals


Great Red Spot movie

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap001123.html


All the gas giants have rings
All the Gas Giants have rings!

  • Jupiter has a set of 4 rings

    • much less substantial than Saturn’s rings

    • only visible by backlighting

    • Discovered by Voyager 1

    • Formed from dust blasted off 4 small inner moons by impacts (Amalthea, Andrastea, Metis, Thebe)



The satellites
The Satellites

  • 4 Galilean Moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto

  • 44 Named asteroidal moons

  • 15 as-yet-unnamed asteroidal moons


The orbits of the moons are in resonance

with one another.

All 4 moons orbit in synchronous rotation.


Moon data
Moon Data

Io Europa Ganymede Callisto

Radius 1821 1561 2631 2410

(km)

Density 3530 3010 1940 1830

(kg/m3)

Orbit 5.9 9.4 15.0 26.3

Radius

(Rj)


Io

  • More than 80 erupting volcanoes.

  • Surface is entirely sulfur and sulfur compounds.

  • Volcanoes spew sulfur dioxide, which “rains” back onto the surface.

    • Electrically conductive sulfur and oxygen ions escape Io’s gravity, and orbit Jupiter in a torus.


Tvashtar eruption movie
Tvashtar Eruption Movie

  • Planetary Society


The Io Plasma Torus rotates along withJupiter’s magnetic field, once every 10 hours.

Jupiter’s magnetic field is not aligned perfectly

with its spin axis, so the torus has a “wobble”.


A movie of the Io Plasma Torus

http://haydenplanetarium.org/resources/ava/page/index.php?file=P0404juptorus

An electrical current flows from Jupiter toIo and back again: 2 trillion watts of power.

This current flows through the Flux Tube.


When Io is properly

aligned, this current emits

radio signals at around

20.1 MHz.

(Radio Jove Project)


Why hasn t io cooled off
Why hasn’t Io cooled off?

  • Io is about the same size and mass as the earth’s moon.

  • Our moon shows no current volcanic activity.

  • Why isn’t Io in the same state?


Europa
Europa

  • Salty ice crust – the flattest surface of any

    planet or moon in the solar system

  • Subsurface liquid or slushy ocean?

  • Linea or tectonic cracks

  • Few craters


Minos

Linea

Region


Ganymede
Ganymede

  • The largest moon in the solar system

    • larger than Mercury and Pluto

  • Icy crust

    • Older, heavily-cratered dark regions.

    • Younger, lighter-colored terrain, where liquid water has erupted from beneath the surface.


Ganymede s interior
Ganymede’s Interior

  • Mottled, grooved surface

  • Evidence that subsurface water has erupted onto the surface

  • A metallic core with an icy mantle is implied.

  • (Rocky outcrops under the ice)


Callisto
Callisto

  • Heavily cratered icy surface indicates that the surface is original, not changed by tectonic processes.

  • This implies that Callisto may have no core, or may be incompletely differentiated (layered).


Palimpsests
Palimpsests

  • Palimpsest (ghost craters)

    • ice rebounds slowly after impact

    • crater is filled back to original surface elevation

    • leaves behind only a crater “fingerprint”

    • Name comes from a re-used writing parchment.



Palimpsest –

a parchment partly

erased and reused.

The former ghostly

writing shows

through underneath.


Only 6 missions
Only 6 Missions

  • Pioneer 10 – launched early 1972, flyby Dec., 1973.

    • first mission to pass through the asteroid belt.

    • first mission to photograph Jupiter, just 130,000 km above cloud tops.

    • last signal received 2003

  • Pioneer 11 – launched 1973, flyby 1979

    • took photos of Jupiter & Great Red Spot


Voyager
Voyager

  • Voyager 1 – 1977, flyby 1980

    • studied and photographed Jupiter’s moons

    • currently the most distant man-made spacecraft, 100 A.U.

  • Voyager 2 – 1977, flyby 1981

    • studied and photographed GRS and Io’s volcanism


Galileo
Galileo

  • Launched 1989

  • Problems with main antenna, computers

  • Made 34 orbits through Jovian system

  • Sent a probe into Jupiter’s upper atmosphere

  • Purposely crashed into Jupiter in 2003 so it wouldn’t accidentally crash into Europa and possibly contaminate that moon


Galileo science highlights
Galileo science highlights

  • Enormous thunderstorms within Jupiter’s upper atmosphere

  • Studied Io’s volcanism

  • Found even stronger evidence for Europa’s subsurface ocean

  • Found that Ganymede has its own magnetic field

  • Callisto may also have a subsurface ocean and a magnetic field


Cassini
Cassini

  • Primarily a mission to Saturn.

  • Made a flyby of Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 (the Millenium Flyby)

  • Unusual that two U.S. spacecraft on independent missions were observing another planet at the same time.


http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/jupiterfact.htmlhttp://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/jupiterfact.html

http://www.blue-cosmos.de/system/jupiter.html

http://www.pa.msu.edu/people/horvatin/Images/Planets/jupiter/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:OblateSpheroid.PNG

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/sim/jupiter-earth-browse.jpg

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/jgifs/Jupiterearthsun.GIF

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/jupiter/images/jupiter_magneto_small.jpg

http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/BrauImNew/Chap11/FG11_13.jpg

http://ase.tufts.edu/cosmos/pictures/Explore_figs_5/Chapter3/Fig3_16.jpg

http://www.astrophysicsspectator.com/topics/planets/JupiterMagnetosphere.html

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/jupiter_elements_991117.html

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0311/jupiterp_cassini_full.jpg

http://quest.nasa.gov/galileo/features/data.html

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/graphics/230-1226B_s.gif

http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/BrauImNew/Chap11/FG11_10.jpg

http://astro.gmu.edu/classes/a10594/notes/l20/l20.html

http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/~haller/ast_160/copy/jupiter_rot.jpg

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/jupiter/images/belts_zones_disc.gif

http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/PIA00014.jpg

http://www.universetoday.com/category/jupiter/

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/jupiter/images/J_moon_orbits.gif

http://www.mysciencesite.com/sse_moon_sizes.jpg


http://www.pa.msu.edu/people/horvatin/Images/Planets/jupiter/Io.jpghttp://www.pa.msu.edu/people/horvatin/Images/Planets/jupiter/Io.jpg

http://www.unet.univie.ac.at/~a9503672/astro/grafiken/solar/volcano-on-io.jpg

http://vega.lpl.arizona.edu/iotorus/iotorus-frame.html

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/jovian_moons/promdisk.jpg

http://ufro1.astro.ufl.edu/iotorus.jpg

http://www.planetaryexploration.net/jupiter/io/images/jupiter_aurora_01257.jpg

http://hal.physast.uga.edu/~jss/1010/ch11/

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/mess41/images/min_lineargn.gif

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/9903/ganymede_galmosaic_big.jpg

http://slamdunk.geol.ucl.ac.uk/~brodholt/B165/Figures/Planets/chaos_europa.jpg

http://www.astr.ua.edu/ay102/Lab5/Jupiter/callisto.jpg

http://planetscapes.com/art/browse/calint.jpg

http://www.oulu.fi/astronomy/planetology/TerrPlanets/Pl1_2001/T_Suokas/valhalla.gif

http://www.dexus-hosting.cz/o-dexus/pojmenovani-serveru/_img/callisto/valhalla.jpg

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/graphics/rings.gif

http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/sept98/rings/300/jupmos.GIF

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/jupiter/space_missions.html

http://quest.nasa.gov/sso/cool/pioneer10/graphics/lasher/slide2lg.gif

http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/

http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov/discovery.cfm

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/galileo.jpg

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/Galileo_Diagram.jpg

http://www.spacetoday.org/SolSys/Jupiter/JupiterCassini.html


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