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Chapter 16. Operating and Financial Leverage. After Studying Chapter 16, you should be able to:. Define operating and financial leverage and identify causes of both. Calculate a firm’s operating break-even (quantity) point and break-even (sales) point .

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Chapter 16

Chapter 16

Operating and Financial Leverage


Chapter 16 5700076

After Studying Chapter 16, you should be able to:

  • Define operating and financial leverage and identify causes of both.

  • Calculate a firm’s operating break-even (quantity) point and break-even (sales) point .

  • Define, calculate, and interpret a firm's degree of operating, financial, and total leverage.

  • Understand EBIT-EPS break-even, or indifference, analysis, and construct and interpret an EBIT-EPS chart.

  • Define, discuss, and quantify “total firm risk” and its two components, “business risk” and “financial risk.”

  • Understand what is involved in determining the appropriate amount of financial leverage for a firm.


Chapter 16 5700076

Operating and Financial Leverage

  • Operating Leverage

  • Financial Leverage

  • Total Leverage

  • Cash-Flow Ability to Service Debt

  • Other Methods of Analysis

  • Combination of Methods


Leverage

Leverage

  • Capital structure refers to the mix of long term debt and equity maintained by the firm

  • Leverage results from the use of fixed cost assets

  • to magnify returns to the firm’s owners

  •  increased leverage raises risk/return

  •  decreased leverage lowers risk/return

  • Management can control leverage in the capital structure, and in turn affect firm value


Leverage1

Leverage

  • Three types of leverage:

  • Operating leverage – relates sales to EBIT

  • Financial leverage – relates EBIT to EPS

  • Total leverage – relates sales to EPS

  • Mathematically, these three measures of leverage are related as follows:

  •  Operating leverage × financial leverage = total leverage

  •  sales/EBIT x EBIT/EPS = sales/EPS


Types of leverage and income statement

Types of leverage and income statement:


Chapter 16 5700076

Operating Leverage

Operating Leverage – The use of fixed operating costs by the firm.

  • One potential “effect” caused by the presence of operating leverage is that a change in the volume of sales results in a “more than proportional” change in operating profit (or loss).


Chapter 16 5700076

Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits

(in thousands)

Firm F Firm V Firm 2F

Sales$10$11 $19.5

Operating Costs

Fixed 7 2 14

Variable 2 7 3

Operating Profit$1$ 2 $ 2.5

FC/total costs 0.78 0.22 0.82

FC/sales 0.70 0.18 0.72


Chapter 16 5700076

Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits

  • Now, subject each firm to a 50% increase in sales for next year.

  • Which firm do you think will be more “sensitive” to the change in sales (i.e., show the largest percentage changein operating profit, EBIT)?

    [ ] Firm F; [ ] Firm V; [ ] Firm 2F.


Chapter 16 5700076

Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits

(in thousands)

Firm F Firm V Firm 2F

Sales$15 $16.5 $29.25

Operating Costs

Fixed 7 2 14

Variable 310.5 4.5

Operating Profit$5 $ 4 $10.75

Percentage Change in EBIT*400% 100% 330%

* (EBITt - EBIT t-1) / EBIT t-1


Chapter 16 5700076

Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits

  • Firm F is the most “sensitive” firm – for it,

    a 50% increase in sales leads to a

    400% increase in EBIT.

  • Our example reveals that it is a mistake to assume that the firm with the largest absolute or relative amount of fixed costs automatically shows the most dramatic effects of operating leverage.

  • Later, we will come up with an easy way to

    spot the firm that is most sensitive to the presence of operating leverage.


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even Analysis

  • When studying operating leverage, “profits” refers to operating profits before taxes (i.e., EBIT) and excludes debt interest and dividend payments.

Break-Even Analysis – A technique for studying the relationship among fixed costs, variable costs, sales volume, and profits. Also called cost/volume/profit analysis (C/V/P) analysis.


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even Chart

Total Revenues

QUANTITY PRODUCED AND SOLD

Profits

250

Total Costs

175

REVENUES AND COSTS

($ thousands)

Fixed Costs

100

Losses

Variable Costs

50

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even (Quantity) Point

How to find the quantity break-even point:

EBIT = P(Q) – V(Q) – FC

EBIT = Q(P – V) – FC

P = Price per unitV = Variable costs per unit

FC = Fixed costs Q = Quantity (units) produced and sold

Break-Even Point – The sales volume required so that total revenues and total costs are equal; may be in units or in sales dollars.


Break even quantity point

Break-Even (Quantity) Point

  • EBIT = Q(P – VC) – FC, so

  • Q = FC/(P – VC) = Breakeven point


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even (Quantity) Point

Breakeven occurs when EBIT = 0

Q (P – V) – FC= EBIT

QBE (P – V) – FC = 0

QBE (P – V) = FC

QBE = FC/ (P – V)

a.k.a. Unit Contribution Margin


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even (Sales) Point

How to find the sales break-even point:

SBE=FC + (VCBE)

SBE=FC + (QBE )(V)

or

SBE*=FC / [1 – (VC / S) ]

* Refer to text for derivation of the formula


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even Point Example

  • Basket Wonders (BW) wants to determine both the quantity and sales break-even points when:

    • Fixed costs are $100,000

    • Baskets are sold for $43.75each

    • Variable costs are $18.75 per basket


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even Point (s)

Breakeven occurs when:

QBE = FC/ (P – V)

QBE = $100,000/ ($43.75 – $18.75)

QBE = 4,000 Units

SBE=(QBE )(V) + FC

SBE=(4,000 )($18.75) + $100,000

SBE = $175,000


Break even point

Break-Even Point

  • Lv Xi has fixed operating costs of $2,500, the sale price per unit is $10, and variable operating cost per unit is $5. What is the BE point?

  • Q = 2,500/(10 – 5) = 500 units

  • At sales of 500 units, the firm’s EBIT equals $0. The firm will have positive EBIT for sales greater than 500 units and negative EBIT, or a loss, for sales less than 500 units.

  • You can confirm this by substituting values above and below 500 units, along with the other values given into the equation.


Break even point1

Break-Even Point

  • LvXi wishes to evaluate the impact of several options:

  • (1) increasing fixed operating costs to $3000,

  • (2) increasing the sales price per unit to $12.50,

  • (3) increasing the variable operating cost per unit to $7.50, and

  • (4) simultaneously implementing all three of these changes.

  • Substituting the appropriate data into Equation 16.3 yields the following:


Break even point2

Break-Even Point

  • 1. OPB = 3000/(10 – 5) = 600 units

  • 2. OPB = 2500/(12.50 – 5) = 333.33 units

  • 3. OPB = 2500/(10 – 7.50) = 1000 units

  • 4. OPB = 3000/(12.50 – 7.50) = 600 units

  • Actions 1&3 (cost increases) raise OPB

  • Action 2 (revenue inc.) lowers OPB

  • Action 4 (combined) increases OPB


Break even point3

Break-Even Point

  • Break-even analysis: – sensitivity

  • increase in variable effect on OPB

  • FC increase

  • P decrease

  • VC increase

  • OPB = Operating break-even point


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even Chart

Total Revenues

QUANTITY PRODUCED AND SOLD

Profits

250

Total Costs

175

REVENUES AND COSTS

($ thousands)

Fixed Costs

100

Losses

Variable Costs

50

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000


Chapter 16 5700076

Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL)

DOL at Q units of output

(or sales)

Degree of Operating Leverage – The percentage change in a firm’s operating profit (EBIT) resulting from a 1 percent change in output (sales).

Percentage change in

operating profit (EBIT)

=

Percentage change in

output (or sales)


Degree of operating leverage dol

Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL)


Degree of operating leverage dol1

Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL)

  • Operating leverage: the potential use of fixed operating costs to magnify the effects of changes in sales on the firm’s EBIT

  •  an increase (decrease) in sales results in a more-than-proportionate increase (decrease) in EBIT

  • the ‘degree of operating leverage’ (DOL) equals:

  • DOL = (% change EBIT) / (% change sales)

  • An alternative formula (at base sales level, Q) is:

  • DOL = Q(P – VC)/[Q(P – VC) – FC]


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing the DOL

DOLQ units

Calculating the DOL for a single product or a single-product firm.

Q (P – V)

=

Q (P – V) – FC

Q

=

Q – QBE


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing the DOL

DOLS dollars of sales

Calculating the DOL for a multiproduct firm.

S – VC

=

S – VC – FC

EBIT + FC

=

EBIT


Chapter 16 5700076

Break-Even Point Example

  • Lisa Miller wants to determine the degree of operating leverage at sales levels of 6,000 and 8,000 units. As we did earlier, we will assume that:

    • Fixed costs are $100,000

    • Baskets are sold for $43.75each

    • Variable costs are $18.75 per basket


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing BW’s DOL

DOL6,000 units

Computation based on the previously calculated break-even point of 4,000 units

6,000

3

=

=

6,000 – 4,000

8,000

2

=

  • DOL8,000 units

=

8,000 – 4,000


Chapter 16 5700076

Interpretation of the DOL

A 1% increase in sales above the 8,000 unit level increases EBIT by 2% because of the existing operating leverage of the firm.

8,000

2

=

  • DOL8,000 units

=

8,000 – 4,000


Chapter 16 5700076

Interpretation of the DOL

5

4

3

2

1

DEGREE OF OPERATING

LEVERAGE (DOL)

0

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

–1

–2

–3

QBE

–4

–5

QUANTITY PRODUCED AND SOLD


Interpretation of the dol

Interpretation of the DOL

  • Lv Xi swaps part of its variable operating costs (eliminating sales commissions) for fixed operating costs (increasing sales salaries). Result - a reduction in the variable operating cost per unit from $5 to $4.50 and an increase in the fixed operating costs from $2,500 to $3,000. EBIT of $2,500 at the 1,000-unit sales level is unchanged. What is Lv Xi’s DOL?

  • DOL = Q(P – VC)/[Q(P – VC) – FC]

  • = 1,000(10 – 4.50)/[1,000(10 – 4.50) – 3,000]

  • =2.2

  • Thus, the higher the firm’s fixed operating costs relative to variable operating costs, the greater the degree of operating leverage.


Chapter 16 5700076

Interpretation of the DOL

Key Conclusions to be Drawn from the previous slide and our Discussion of DOL

  • DOL is a quantitative measure of the “sensitivity”of a firm’s operating profit to a change in the firm’s sales.

  • The closer that a firm operates to its break-even point, the higher is the absolute value of its DOL.

  • When comparing firms, the firm with the highest DOL is the firm that will be most “sensitive” to a change in sales.


Chapter 16 5700076

DOL and Business Risk

Business Risk – The inherent uncertainty in the physical operations of the firm. Its impact is shown in the variability of the firm’s operating income (EBIT).

  • DOL is only one component of business risk and becomes “active” only in the presence of sales and production cost variability.

  • DOL magnifies the variability of operating profits and, hence, business risk.


Chapter 16 5700076

Application of DOL for Our Three Firm Example

Use the data in Slide 16–8 and the following formula for Firm F :

DOL = [(EBIT + FC)/EBIT]

1,000 +7,000

8.0

=

  • DOL$10,000 sales

=

1,000


Chapter 16 5700076

Application of DOL for Our Three Firm Example

Use the data in Slide 16–8 and the following formula for Firm V :

DOL = [(EBIT + FC)/EBIT]

2,000 +2,000

2.0

=

  • DOL$11,000 sales

=

2,000


Chapter 16 5700076

Application of DOL for Our Three-Firm Example

Use the data in Slide 16–8 and the following formula for Firm 2F :

DOL = [(EBIT + FC)/EBIT]

2,500 +14,000

=

  • DOL$19,500 sales

6.6

=

2,500


Chapter 16 5700076

Application of DOL for Our Three-Firm Example

The ranked results indicate that the firm most sensitive to the presence of operating leverage is Firm F.

Firm FDOL = 8.0

Firm VDOL = 6.6

Firm 2FDOL = 2.0

Firm F will expect a 400% increase in profit from a 50% increase in sales (see Slide 16–10 results).


Chapter 16 5700076

Financial Leverage

  • Financial leverage is acquired by choice.

  • Used as a means of increasing the return to common shareholders.

Financial Leverage – The use of fixed financing costs by the firm. The British expression is gearing.


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT-EPS Break-Even, or Indifference, Analysis

EBIT-EPS Break-Even Analysis – Analysis of the effect of financing alternatives on earnings per share. The break-even point is the EBIT level where EPS is the same for two (or more) alternatives.

Calculate EPS for a given level of EBIT at a given financing structure.

(EBIT – I) (1 – t) – Pref. Div.

EPS

=

# of Common Shares


Chapter 16 5700076

Current common equity shares = 50,000

$1 million in new financing of either:

All C.S. sold at $20/share (50,000 shares)

All debt with a coupon rate of 10%

All Pref.Shares with a dividend rate of 9%

Expected EBIT = $500,000

Income tax rate is 30%

Basket Wonders has $2 million in LT financing (100% common stock equity).

EBIT-EPS Chart


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT $500,000 $150,000*

Interest 0 0

EBT $500,000 $150,000

Taxes (30% x EBT) 150,000 45,000

EAT $350,000 $105,000

Preferred Dividends 0 0

EACS $350,000 $105,000

# of Shares 100,000 100,000

EPS $3.50 $1.05

Common Stock Equity Alternative

EBIT-EPS Calculation with New Equity Financing

* A second analysis using $150,000 EBIT rather than the expected EBIT.


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT-EPS Chart

6

5

Common

4

3

Earnings per Share ($)

2

1

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

EBIT ($ thousands)


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT $500,000 $150,000*

Interest 100,000 100,000

EBT $400,000 $ 50,000

Taxes (30% x EBT) 120,000 15,000

EAT $280,000 $ 35,000

Preferred Dividends 0 0

EACS $280,000 $ 35,000

# of Shares 50,000 50,000

EPS $5.60 $0.70

Long-term Debt Alternative

EBIT-EPS Calculation with New Debt Financing

* A second analysis using $150,000 EBIT rather than the expected EBIT.


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT-EPS Chart

Debt

6

5

Indifference point

between debtand

common stock

financing

Common

4

3

Earnings per Share ($)

2

1

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

EBIT ($ thousands)


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT $500,000 $150,000*

Interest 0 0

EBT $500,000 $150,000

Taxes (30% x EBT) 150,000 45,000

EAT $350,000 $105,000

Preferred Dividends 90,000 90,000

EACS $260,000 $ 15,000

# of Shares 50,000 50,000

EPS $5.20 $0.30

Preferred Stock Alternative

EBIT-EPS Calculation with New Preferred Financing

* A second analysis using $150,000 EBIT rather than the expected EBIT.


Chapter 16 5700076

EBIT-EPS Chart

Debt

6

Preferred

5

Common

4

3

Earnings per Share ($)

Indifference point

between preferred

stock andcommon

stockfinancing

2

1

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

EBIT ($ thousands)


Chapter 16 5700076

What About Risk?

Debt

6

Lower risk. Only a small

probability that EPS will

be less if the debt

alternative is chosen.

5

4

Common

Probability of Occurrence

(for the probability distribution)

3

Earnings per Share ($)

2

1

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

EBIT ($ thousands)


Chapter 16 5700076

What About Risk?

Debt

6

Higher risk. A much larger

probability that EPS will

be less if the debt

alternative is chosen.

5

4

Probability of Occurrence

(for the probability distribution)

Common

Earnings per Share ($)

3

2

1

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

EBIT ($ thousands)


Chapter 16 5700076

Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL)

Degree of Financial Leverage – The percentage change in a firm’s earnings per share (EPS) resulting from a 1 percent change in operating profit.

DFL at EBIT of X dollars

Percentage change in

earnings per share (EPS)

=

Percentage change in

operating profit (EBIT)


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing the DFL

DFL EBIT of $X

Calculating the DFL

EBIT

=

EBIT – I – [ PD / (1 – t) ]

EBIT = Earnings before interest and taxes

I = Interest

PD = Preferred dividends

t = Corporate tax rate


Chapter 16 5700076

What is the DFL for Each of the Financing Choices?

DFL$500,000

Calculating the DFL for NEW equity* alternative

$500,000

=

$500,000 – 0 – [0 / (1 – 0)]

1.00

=

* The calculation is based on the expected EBIT


Chapter 16 5700076

What is the DFL for Each of the Financing Choices?

DFL$500,000

Calculating the DFL for NEW debt * alternative

$500,000

=

{ $500,000 – 100,000

– [0 / (1 – 0)] }

=

$500,000/ $400,000

=

1.25

* The calculation is based on the expected EBIT


Chapter 16 5700076

What is the DFL for Each of the Financing Choices?

DFL$500,000

Calculating the DFL for NEW preferred * alternative

$500,000

=

{ $500,000 – 0

– [90,000 / (1 – 0.30)] }

=

$500,000/ $371,429

=

1.35

* The calculation is based on the expected EBIT


Chapter 16 5700076

Variability of EPS

DFLEquity = 1.00

DFLDebt = 1.25

DFLPreferred =1.35

Which financing method will have the greatest relative variability in EPS?

  • Preferred stock financing will lead to the greatest variability in earnings per share based on the DFL.

  • This is due to the tax deductibility of interest on debt financing.


Chapter 16 5700076

Financial Risk

  • Debt increases the probability of cash insolvency over an all-equity-financed firm. For example, our example firm must have EBIT of at least $100,000 to cover the interest payment.

  • Debt also increased the variability in EPS as the DFL increased from 1.00 to 1.25.

Financial Risk – The added variability in earnings per share (EPS) – plus the risk of possible insolvency – that is induced by the use of financial leverage.


Chapter 16 5700076

Total Firm Risk

Total Firm Risk – The variability in earnings per share (EPS). It is the sum of business plus financial risk.

  • CVEPS is a measure of relative total firm risk

  • CVEBIT is a measure of relative business risk

  • The difference, CVEPS – CVEBIT, is a measure of relative financial risk

  • Total firm risk = business risk + financial risk


Total leverage

Total Leverage

  • Total leverage: the potential use of both operating and financial fixed costs to magnify the effects of changes in sales on the firm’s EPS

  •  an increase (decrease) in sales results in a more-than-proportionate increase (decrease) in EPS

  • the ‘degree of total leverage’ (DTL) equals:

  • DTL = (% change EPS) / (% change sales), or

  • DTL = Q(P – VC)/[Q(P – VC) – FC – I – (Dp/(1 – t))]


Total leverage1

Total Leverage

  • Li Da Ltd expects annual sales of 20,000 units at $5 per unit and incurs variable operating costs of $2 per unit, fixed operating costs of $10,000, interest of $20,000 and preference dividends of $12,000. The firm is in the 40% tax bracket and has issued 5,000 ordinary shares. The next slide presents the levels of EPS associated with the expected sales of 20,000 units and with sales of 30, 000 units.


Total leverage2

Total Leverage


Chapter 16 5700076

Degree of Total Leverage (DTL)

DTL at Q units (or S dollars) of output (or sales)

Degree of Total Leverage – The percentage change in a firm’s earnings per share (EPS) resulting from a 1 percent change in output (sales).

Percentage change in

earnings per share (EPS)

=

Percentage change in

output (or sales)


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing the DTL

DTL S dollars

of sales

DTL Q units (or S dollars) = ( DOL Q units (or S dollars) ) x ( DFL EBIT of X dollars )

Note: the relationship is multiplicative, not additive.

EBIT + FC

=

EBIT – I – [ PD / (1 – t) ]

Q (P–V)

DTL Q units

=

Q (P–V) – FC – I – [ PD / (1 – t) ]


Chapter 16 5700076

DTL Example

  • Lisa Miller wants to determine the Degree of Total Leverage at EBIT=$500,000. As we did earlier, we will assume that:

    • Fixed costs are $100,000

    • Baskets are sold for $43.75each

    • Variable costs are $18.75 per basket


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing the DTL for All-Equity Financing

DTL S dollars

of sales

DTLS dollars = (DOL S dollars) x (DFLEBIT of $S )

DTLS dollars = (1.2 ) x ( 1.0*) = 1.20

$500,000 + $100,000

=

$500,000 – 0 – [ 0 / (1 – 0.3) ]

1.20

=

*Note: No financial leverage.


Chapter 16 5700076

Computing the DTL for Debt Financing

DTL S dollars

of sales

DTLS dollars = (DOL S dollars) x (DFLEBIT of $S )

DTLS dollars = (1.2 ) x ( 1.25*) = 1.50

$500,000 + $100,000

=

{ $500,000 – $100,000

– [ 0 / (1 – 0.3) ] }

1.50

=

*Note: Calculated on Slide 16.44.


Chapter 16 5700076

Risk versus Return

Compare the expected EPS to the DTL for the common stock equity financing approach to the debt financing approach.

FinancingE(EPS)DTL

Equity$3.501.20

Debt$5.601.50

Greater expected return (higher EPS) comes at the expense of greater potential risk (higher DTL)!


Chapter 16 5700076

What is an Appropriate Amount of Financial Leverage?

Debt Capacity – The maximum amount of debt (and other fixed-charge financing) that a firm can adequately service.

  • Firms must first analyze their expected future cash flows.

  • The greater and more stable the expected future cash flows, the greater the debt capacity.

  • Fixed charges include: debt principal and interest payments, lease payments, and preferred stock dividends.


Chapter 16 5700076

Interest Coverage

EBIT

Interest expenses

Indicates a firm’s ability to cover interest charges.

Coverage Ratios

Income Statement

Ratios

Coverage Ratios

A ratio value equal to 1

indicates that earnings

are just sufficient to

cover interest charges.


Chapter 16 5700076

Debt-service Coverage

EBIT

{ Interest expenses + [Principal payments / (1-t) ] }

Indicates a firm’s ability to cover interest expenses and principal payments.

Coverage Ratios

Income Statement

Ratios

Coverage Ratios

Allows us to examine the

ability of the firm to meet

all of its debt payments.

Failure to make principal

payments is also default.


Chapter 16 5700076

Coverage Example

  • Make an examination of the coverage ratios for Basket Wonders when EBIT=$500,000. Compare the equity and the debt financing alternatives.

  • Assume that:

    • Interest expenses remain at $100,000

    • Principal payments of $100,000 are made yearly for 10 years


Chapter 16 5700076

Coverage Example

Compare the interest coverage and debt burden ratios for equity and debt financing.

Interest Debt-service

FinancingCoverage Coverage

Equity Infinite Infinite

Debt 5.00 2.50

The firm actually has greater risk than the interest coverage ratio initially suggests.


Chapter 16 5700076

Coverage Example

Firm B has a much

smaller probability

of failing to meet its

obligations than Firm A.

Firm B

Firm A

PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE

Debt-service burden

= $200,000

-250 0 250 500 750 1,000 1,250

EBIT ($ thousands)


Chapter 16 5700076

A single ratio value cannot be interpreted identically for all firms as some firms have greater debt capacity.

Annual financial lease payments should be added to both the numerator and denominator of the debt-service coverage ratio as financial leases are similar to debt.

Summary of the Coverage Ratio Discussion

  • The debt-service coverage ratio accounts for required annual principal payments.


Chapter 16 5700076

Other Methods of Analysis

Capital Structure – The mix (or proportion) of a firm’s permanent long-term financing represented by debt, preferred stock, and common stock equity.

  • Often, firms are compared to peer institutions in the same industry.

  • Large deviations from norms must be justified.

  • For example, an industry’s median debt-to-net-worth ratio might be used as a benchmark for financial leverage comparisons.


Chapter 16 5700076

Other Methods of Analysis

Surveying Investment Analysts and Lenders

  • Firms may gain insight into the financial markets’ evaluation of their firm by talking with:

    • Investment bankers

    • Institutional investors

    • Investment analysts

    • Lenders


Chapter 16 5700076

Other Methods of Analysis

  • Firms must consider the impact of any financing decision on the firm’s security rating(s).

Security Ratings


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