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Picking The Right Set of Mobile Devices. By Brian Kitchener Software Quality Architect [email protected] Overview. About me Some Background The Problem Understanding Android How Apps Work Building a Device Matrix Example Matrices Conclusion. About Me.

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Picking the right set of mobile devices

Picking The Right Set of Mobile Devices

By Brian Kitchener

Software Quality Architect

[email protected]


Overview
Overview

About me

Some Background

The Problem

Understanding Android

How Apps Work

Building a Device Matrix

Example Matrices

Conclusion


About me
About Me

  • Software Quality Architect at ProtoTest

    • We're a mobile test lab that combines usability testing with quality assurance  to cultivate a great user experience

    • Project Architect, Technical Lead, Trainer.

  • Started in QA in 2001

  • BA in Applied Computing from University of Denver

  • Testing background : Functional, Performance, UAT, Security, API, Database.

  • Automation : Selenium, WebDriver, WatiN, MonkeyTalk, SOASTA, Fitnesse, QTP, EggPlant, Squish

  • Languages : C#, Java, Ruby, Javascript



  • Some stats for 2012
    Some Stats for 2012

    • Mobile Apps achieved $17 billion in sales

    • 5.2 Mobile Subscribers

      • 1.2 Billion PC’s

      • 4.2 Billion people use a toothbrush

      • 1 Billion Smartphones

    • 722 Million Smartphones sold

    • 1.4 Million iOS + Android Apps

    • 25 developers = half of app revenue



    About the iphone
    About the iPhone

    • Steve Ballmer : Microsoft CEO

      • “There’s no chance the iPhone is going to gain significant market share. No chance.”

    • Patrick Stewart:

      • “Last Wednesday, I stupidly dropped my iPhone in the bath, and my life has sort of spiraled almost out of control.”

    • Jon Rubinstein – Palm CEO

      • Is there a toaster that also knows how to brew coffee? There is no such combined device, because it would not make anything better than an individual toaster or coffee machine. It works the same way with the iPod, the digital camera or mobile phone: it is important to have specialized devices.

    • Mike Lazaridis – Blackberry CEO

      • And so what [the iPhone] has actually done is increased our sales.



    And then there were two
    And Then There Were Two…

    • Android unveiled November 2007

    • First device was sold in October 2008.

    • Over 11,000 models have been released.

    • 48 Billion app installs

    • Over 1 Billion Android devices activated

    • 8 OS Revisions




    Let s do some math
    Let’s do some math!

    • 16 device display categories

    • 20 different common resolutions

    • 8 OS versions

    • 6 Hardware Manufacturers

    • 4 Major cellular networks

    • 16 x 20 x 8 x 6 x 4 = 76,800 permutations

    • Pairwise approach = over 30 permutations

    • Who can afford to increase testing by 30X?


    Our approach
    Our Approach

    Efficiency, not coverage

    Flexible: support small or large number of devices

    Understand how apps work to logically select criteria

    Use Market research to pick most common configurations

    Pick minimum and maximum boundary values for each criteria

    Choose a value that matches an edge case or abnormal configuration.

    Pick values that stress or tax the system



    Android
    Android

    • Built and Maintained by Google

    • Open Source

    • Built on Linux kernel

    • ARM

    • X86 Ports

    • Built to support almost any type of device

      • Phones, tablets, phablets, media players, tv’s, watches, etc.

    • Device Manufacturers customize code.


    Example kindle fire
    Example: Kindle Fire

    • Forked Android 2.3

      • Not updateable

    • Customized UI

    • Separate App store

    • Not all android apps work

    • Custom web browser


    The operating system
    The Operating System

    • Google Releases “stock” versions

    • 10 Major Releases since 2008

      • API Level, not Version

    • Device manufacturers like to customize the OS

      • Drivers, libraries, UI

    • “Stock” OS available in Nexus devices or an Emulator


    Simulators emulators
    Simulators / Emulators

    • Simulator imitates the software layer

      • OS and Libraries

      • Apple provides a simulator in xCode IDE

    • Emulator duplicates the hardware and software

      • Processor and Memory

      • Cannot mimic GPU, GPS, accelerometer

    • Always run stock OS

    • Can be used to test some functionality

    • Should always test on a physical device too


    The processor
    The Processor

    • ARM RISC-based instruction set

    • Specification defined by ARM holdings

    • 32 bit

    • Same as iOS

    • X86 patches and ports

    • It’s only a spec, can be modified.


    Soc system on a chip
    SoC – System On A Chip

    • Main Board

    • Processor

    • RAM Bus

    • GPU

    • May include :

      • Cellular

      • WiFi

      • NFC

      • GPS

      • Bluetooth


    2 samsung galaxy s4s
    2 Samsung Galaxy S4s

    Quallcomm Snapdragon

    • Quallcomm Krait 300

      • Quad core ARMv7 Cortex A15 Architecture

    • Adreno 320 GPU

    • Dual Channel 533Mhz Bus

    • Integrated LTE

    Samsung Exynos 5 Octa

    • Samsung Big.little processor

      • Quad core Cortex A 15

      • Quad core Cortex A7

    • PowerVR SGX 544 GPU

    • Dual Channel 800Mhz Bus

    • No Integrated LTE



    Resolution is not enough
    Resolution is not enough

    • Unlimited number of screen sizes available

    • Screens range from 3” to 11”

    • Each screen has a resolution, same as a monitor

      • If you increase the resolution everything shrinks!

    • Pixels per Inch = Density

    • Screen Size + Density = Display Bucket

    • Resolution is not enough!


    The display buckets
    The Display Buckets

    Size :

    • Xlarge : 8” - 10” tablet.

    • Large : 5” - 7” tablet.

    • Normal : 3.5” - 5” phones.

    • Small : 3” - 3.5” phones.

      Density :

    • ldpi = Low DPI (~120)

    • mdpi = Medium DPI (~160)

    • hdpi = High DPI (~240)

    • xhdpi = Extra High DPI (~320)


    Display buckets
    Display Buckets

    • Galaxy S3

      • 1280 x 720

      • Xhdpi density (331ppi)

      • Normal screen (4.7”)

    • Galaxy Tab 10.1

      • 1280 x 800

      • ldpi density (149ppi)

      • Xlargesceren (10.1”)

    • Galaxy Note LTE

      • 1280 x 800

      • hdpi density (285ppi)

      • Large Screen (5.5”)



    Aspect ratio
    Aspect Ratio

    • UI is manipulated from code

    • Density Pixels adjust for screen size

      • But can use regular pixels!

    • Need to take both X and Y into account!

      • Easy to overlap or hide things

    • Includes orientation

    • Some devices include an aspect ratio changer! (LG Optimus Vu)


    Cellular carrier
    Cellular Carrier

    • Four Major US Networks

      • Verizon, Sprint, AT&T, T-Mobile

      • Some phone interoperability

      • 2 protocols

        • GSM – T-Mobile AT&T

        • CDMA – Verizon and Sprint

      • Carriers assigned specific frequency bands

      • LTE will be new standard - But spectrum issues will prevent cross-network phones

    • So if the phone supports the carrier’s protocol and band it can theoretically connect.



    How apps work1
    How Apps work

    • Apps need to work on all screen sizes

      • May not be functional

      • May be wasted space

      • May not make sense

    • Apps define XML layouts similar to HTML

      • Node structure

      • Static Content – Images, etc

      • Dynamic Content – Color, Text, etc.


    Layouts and fragments
    Layouts and Fragments

    • XML Fragments are reusable components

    • Layouts stitch together fragments for a specific sized device

    • App may need different flow for tablet vs phone


    Building the device matrix
    Building The Device Matrix


    Our criteria
    Our Criteria

    • Operating System

      • OS customizations, missing libraries, driver issues,

    • Screen Size

      • Rendering issues, usability, missing layouts

    • Pixel Density

      • Density Independence, missing layouts.

    • Aspect Ratio

      • X,Y calculations, overlapping panels, display issues

    • SoC

      • Hardware performance, Instruction set, battery, signal

    • Carrier

      • Network protocol, speed, responsiveness, packet loss


    The goal
    The Goal

    Efficiency, not coverage!

    Build a set of devices to be used for app and website testing.

    Know when to update them

    Define a list of simple categories of devices

    Pick devices that offer broad coverage

    Adjust the number of devices based upon needed coverage


    Categorical approach
    Categorical Approach

    • Define scope

      • Android, iOS, phone, tablet, etc.

    • Understand Testing requirements

    • Self-descriptive Names

    • Help to broaden coverage

    • Will adjust devices chosen to cover our criteria

    • Should be apparent when to update a device

    • Spread coverage :

      • Usage -> Edge Cases -> Strange -> Stress


    Example categories
    Example Categories

    • Common

      • Matches most common display configuration

    • Newest

      • Latest OS version, largest screen, highest resolution

    • Oldest

      • Oldest, slowest, smallest device.

    • Abnormal

      • Non-standard OS, aspect ratio, orientation, size

    • Popular

      • Most popular device in terms of sales

    • Budget

      • Low-priced new model. Tend to have strange specs

    • Flagship

      • Nexus device running stock Android OS

    • Catch-All

      • Cover any missing criteria



    Ios matrix
    iOS Matrix


    Conclusion
    Conclusion

    • Understanding how everything works allows us to logically select devices.

    • A large number of permutations can be covered in few devices

    • If additional coverage is needed additional devices can be added

    • White Paper :

      • http://www.prototest.com :

      • Building the Ultimate Device Matrix


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