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工程硕士研究生英语基础教程 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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电子科技大学外语学院. 工程硕士研究生英语基础教程. Table of Contents. 1. Text 2. Exercise 3. Part B: Grammar 4. Part C. Text A: Teach your child to wonder.

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工程硕士研究生英语基础教程

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电子科技大学外语学院

工程硕士研究生英语基础教程


Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • 1. Text

  • 2. Exercise

  • 3. Part B: Grammar

  • 4. Part C


Text a teach your child to wonder

Text A: Teach your child to wonder


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[1] Sadly, far too few schools make science appealing. Courses introduce more new vocabulary than foreign language courses. Textbooks are as dull as dictionaries. As a result, too many children think that science is only for people as clever as Einstein.


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[2] The irony is that children start out as natural scientists, instinctively eager to investigate the world around them. Helping them enjoy science can be easy — there's no need for a lot of scientific jargon or expensive laboratory equipment. You only have to share your children's curiosity.


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[3] Try these simple techniques:


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[4] 1. Listen to their questions.

I once visited a class of seven-year-olds to talk about science as a career. The children asked me textbook questions — about schooling, salary, whether I liked my job. When I finished answering, we sat facing each other in silence. Finally I said, "Now that we've finished your lists, have you got any questions of your own about science?"


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[5] After a long pause, a boy raised his hand. "Have you ever seen a grasshopper eat? When I eat leaves like that, I will get stomachache. Why?"


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[6] This began a barrage of questions that lasted nearly two hours. "What makes tears?" "Where do little spiders get all the stuff to make their webs?" "Am I just a bag of blood? When I cut myself, I see blood."


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[7] You may not know the answers to your child's questions. It's all right to say, "I don't know but maybe we can find out." Then you can explore the questions together.


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[8] 2. Tell stories, don’t recite facts

Even if you know the answer to a child's question, resist the impulse to respond quickly, leaving no opening for discussion. That reinforces the misconception that science is merely a set of facts stored in the heads of adults. Science is about explaining. Science is not just facts but the meaning that people give to them — by weaving information into a story about how nature probably operates.


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[9] The best way to respond to a child's question is to begin that process of story-making together. If she asks why it's dark at night, try, "Let's think of what is different about night that would make it darker than day." If he wonders where bee live, say, "Let's watch and maybe we can see where they go." Always be ready with the answer, "Let's find out."


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[10] 3. Give them time to think

Grown-ups are notorious for expecting quicker answers. Studies over the past three decades have shown that, after asking a question, adults typically wait only one second or less for a response — no time for a child to think. When adults increase their "wait time" to three seconds or more, children respond with more logical, complete and creative answers.


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[11] I once conducted a lesson in air pressure by pushing two robber toilet plungers together until all the air was driven out and they were tightly suctioned. Two children had to tug them mightily to separate them. "How come you need so much force to pull them apart?" I asked.


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[12] After several minutes, a boy named Ron said, "The air is trapped in there and it finds a hole an it all goes out. That's what makes a popping sound." He went on to demonstrate his misconception, but I didn’t say anything yet.


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[13] Another pupil then revealed what she's been thinking: "No, it's because all the air is out of the plunger." She pushed it down on the floor until it stuck, showing that once the air was forced out of the cup, the air pressure was less on the inside than on the outside.


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[14] Rather than telling children what to think, give them time to think for themselves. If a child gets the answer wrong, be patient. You can help when needed with a few leading questions.


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[15] 4. Watch your language

Once you have a child engaged in a science discussion, don't jump in with "That’s right" or "Very good". These verbal rewards work well when it comes to encouraging good behavior. But in conversing about science, quick praise can signal that the discussion is over. Instead, keep the ball rolling by saying, "That's interesting" or "I'd never thought of it that way before", or coming up with more questions or ideas.


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[16] Never exhort a child to "Think!" It doesn't make sense — children are always thinking without you telling them to.


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[17] Avoid asking "why" question. Most children are accustomed to hearing "why" when their behavior is criticized: "Why is your bedroom so messy?" "Why can't you behave?" Instead, I use "How come?"


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[18] 5. Show, don’t tell.

Real-life impressions of nature are far more memorable than any lesson children can extract from a book or TV program. Let children look at their fingertips through a magnifying glass, and they'll understand why you want them to wash before dinner. Rather than explaining what mould is, grow some on a piece of bread. Rather than saying water evaporates, set a pan to boil and let them watch the water level drop.


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[19] If you take your children to a "hands-on" science museum, don't manage their itinerary. Let them lead the way, and explore what interests them most.


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[20] 6. Direct their learning

Everyday activities can provide fascinating lessons in science. Children can learn a great deal about physics and engineering simply by flying a kite.


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[21] Try making your own with light-weight wood, string and paper. By the end of the afternoon's "experiment", your children will get a basic lesson in scientific cause and effect. They'll discover how wind direction and intensity shift at different altitudes.


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[22] When buying toys, blocks of all kinds are great for construction projects. Choose toys with working parts. Even better, look for toys that children can safely take apart and put back together again.


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[23] By sharing your children's curiosity, you can give them a valuable lesson that extends far beyond the realm to experiment, in the face of difficulties.


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[24] And they will see clearly that learning is not drudgery or something that happens only in school. Learning is something to be enjoyed every day — for a lifetime.


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


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Language Study


Exercises

EXERCISES

  • I. Reading Comprehension

  • II. Getting Information

  • III. Vocabulary And Structure A

  • IV. Translation A BC

  • Grammar

    • Ex.1

    • Ex.2


Reading comprehension

READING COMPREHENSION

  • 1-6:E I F D A H


Getting information

GETTING INFORMATION

  • OMITTED


Vocabulary and structure a

VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURE: A

  • leading question

  • a barrage of questions

  • jargon

  • magnifying glass

  • misconception

  • cause and effect

  • hands-on

  • keep the ball rolling

  • drudgery

  • mould


Translation a

Translation: A

1.


Translation b

Translation: B

  • a barrage of questions

  • to resist the impulse to respond quickly to a question.

  • rather than tell children what to think

  • keep the ball rolling

  • to manage the itinerary

  • in the face of difficulties


Translation c

Translation: C

  • The guide made her introduction very appealing.

  • Please use simple words rather than a lot of jargon.

  • Please resist the impulse to respond quickly and leave some opening for discussion.

  • Some leading questions can help the children to think for themselves.

  • It pays to persist in the face of difficulties.


Part c

Part C


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Assignment


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