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Geo 302 - 11.03.02. Tourism development trends Ecotourism Case from Costa Rica: Tortuguero , ”the ecotourism prototype”. … almost 400 million arrivals in 1999. World Tourism Organization. http://www.world-tourism.org/. Tourism in Developing Countries. The many kinds of tourism:

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Geo 302 11 03 02
Geo 302 - 11.03.02

  • Tourism development trends

  • Ecotourism

  • Case from Costa Rica:

  • Tortuguero, ”the ecotourism prototype”



World tourism organization
World Tourism Organization

  • http://www.world-tourism.org/


Tourism in developing countries
Tourism in Developing Countries

The many kinds of tourism:

  • “Sun & Sand” etc. (mass tourism)

  • Nature Tourism

  • Adventure Tourism of many kinds

  • Cultural Tourism

  • Green Tourism

  • Responsible Tourism

  • Sustainable Tourism

  • Ecotourism (“ecology / ecological tourism”)

  • = priority sector in very many developing countries


Tourism in developing countries1
Tourism in Developing Countries

Tourisme & development, economic & local, systematic typologies:

  • Individual, Mass tourism

  • “Informal”, “Formal” or Unorganised, Organised

  • Pioneer, ”Backpackers”

  • = ”anti-tourists”….?

  • “Sandal tourist” / “Bubble tourist”

  • = ???

  • Typical turist destination development: TALC


Talc tourist area life cycle model
TALC - Tourist Area Life Cycle Model


What is ecotourism
What is ecotourism?

”...While the details vary,

most definitions of ecotourism

boil down to a special form of tourism

that meets three criteria:

1) it provides for conservation measures

2) it includes meaningful community participation and

3) it is profitable and can sustain itself. …. ”


What is ecotourism1
What is ecotourism?

  • Strictly defined "ecotourism" is relatively low-impact group travel packages or tours to destinations in nature;

  • "adventure travel" may be individuals or groups engaged in a consumer activity associated with the outdoors: not necessarily environmentally sensitive or ecologically sound.

  • One might speak of "true ecotourism" or "false ecotourism" ("greenwashing").


What is ecotourism2
What is ecotourism?

  • ”Sustainable tourism”:

  • the most all-encompassing term for the cultural, environmental... and fiscal, responsibility of the tourism industry as a whole.

  • Sustainable tourism would therefore include true ecotourism and responsible adventure travel.

  • ”Responsible tourism”: Originally used by social activists often without a nature component entirely… .


World tourism organization1
World Tourism Organization

"Sustainable tourism development

  • meets the needs of present tourists and host regions

  • while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future.

  • It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled

  • while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems." (WTO)


What is ecotourism3
What is ecotourism?

  • ”Greenwashing" in tourism:

  • falsification of objective requirements for environmental conservation, ecological sustainability, and/or socio-cultural responsibility.


Ecotourism
Ecotourism

Professionals working within the field of ecotourism generally agree that it is characterized by:

  • Travel to a natural area.

  • Travel that supports the conservation of biodiversity.

  • Travel that brings benefits to local host communities.

  • Travel that leads to greater understanding of the natural or cultural environment visited.


Ecotourism1
Ecotourism

  • Including these four components in a travel package significantly restricts the number of products that can genuinely be labelled ecotourism.

  • Many confuse the term with nature tourism or adventure travel, but they are not the same.

  • Rather, ecotourism is one niche market within the larger, and rapidly expanding, nature tourism market.

  • By our estimates, nature-based tourism now comprises 20 per cent of the world travel market,

  • and ecotourism 7 per cent.


What is ecotourism4
What is ecotourism?

  • Different perspectives:

  • Ecotourism as ideology / ethics:

  • tourists

  • suppliers

  • Ecotourism as (government) development strategy:

  • resource mangement

  • sustainable development

  • Ecotourism as marketing strategy:

  • opportunistic

  • ”greenwashing”…?


International year of ecotourism
International Year of Ecotourism

  • http://www.world-tourism.org/sustainable/IYE-Main-Menu.htm



Wto unep concept paper international year of ecotourism 2002
WTO-UNEP CONCEPT PAPER - INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ECOTOURISM 2002:

While there is not a universal definition for ecotourism, its general characteristics can be summarised as follows:

  • 1. All nature-based forms of tourism in which the main motivation of the tourists is the observation and appreciation of nature as well as the traditional cultures prevailing in natural areas

  • 2. It contains educational and interpretation features

  • 3. It is generally, but not exclusively organised for small groups by specialised and small, locally owned businesses. …..


Wto unep concept paper international year of ecotourism 20021
WTO-UNEP CONCEPT PAPER - INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ECOTOURISM 2002:

  • 3. …. Foreign operators of varying sizes also organise, operate and/or market ecotourism tours, generally for small groups.

  • 4. It minimises negative impacts upon the natural and socio-cultural environment

  • 5. It supports the protection of natural areas by

  • • generating economic benefits for host communities, organisations and authorities managing natural areas with conservation purposes,

  • • providing alternative employment and income opportunities for local communities,

  • • increasing awareness towards the conservation of natural and cultural assets, both among locals and tourists.


Wto unep concept paper international year of ecotourism 20022
WTO-UNEP CONCEPT PAPER - INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ECOTOURISM 2002:

  • Over the years, it has also become clear that some concerns still need to be wholly addressed in ecotourism, such as:

  • • land tenure and control of the ecotourism development process by host communities,

  • • efficiency and fairness of the current concept of protected areas for protection of biological and cultural diversity

  • • the need for additional precautions and monitoring when operating in especially sensitive areas

  • • indigenous and traditional rights in areas suitable for ecotourism development,



Tortuguero
Tortuguero 2002:


OUTSIDE WORLD 2002:

(US, World Market, Debt Crisis, “Brundtland”)

Government

Migration

-

Commuting

TORTUGUERO:

External

Owners

NAT. RESOURCES

LOCAL COMM.

“Caribb.”

or “Tico”?

Subsistence

Comm. Co-op.

“Commons”

Local Market

Private

Import

Export

Tourists - Researchers - Environmentalists


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