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Chapter 6. Ratio Analysis. Chapter Outline. Purpose and Value of Ratios Types of Ratios Comparative Analysis of Ratios Ratio Analysis Limitations. Learning Outcomes. State the purpose and value of calculating and using ratios to analyze the health of a hospitality business.

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Chapter 6 l.jpg

Chapter 6

Ratio Analysis

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Chapter Outline

  • Purpose and Value of Ratios

  • Types of Ratios

  • Comparative Analysis of Ratios

  • Ratio Analysis Limitations

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Learning Outcomes

  • State the purpose and value of calculating and using ratios to analyze the health of a hospitality business.

  • Distinguish between liquidity, solvency, activity, profitability, investor, and hospitality-specific ratios.

  • Compute and analyze the most common ratios used in the hospitality industry.

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Percentages

  • A ratio is created when you divide one number by another.

  • A special relationship (a percentage) results when the numerator (top number) used in your division is a part of the denominator (bottom number).

  • To convert from common form to decimal form, move the decimal two places to the left, that is, 50.00% = 0.50.

  • To convert from decimal form to common form, move the decimal two places to the right, that is, 0.50 = 50.00%.

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Value of Ratios to Stakeholders

  • All stakeholders who are affected by a business’s profitability will care greatly about the effective operation of a hospitality business. These stakeholders may include:

    • Owners

    • Investors

    • Lenders

    • Creditors

    • Managers

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Value of Ratios to Stakeholders

  • Each of these stakeholders may have different points of view of the relative value of each of the ratios calculated for a hospitality business.

  • Owners and investors are primarily interested in their return on investment (ROI), while lenders and creditors are mostly concerned with their debt being repaid.

  • At times these differing goals of stakeholders can be especially troublesome to managers who have to please their constituencies.

  • One of the main reasons for this conflict lies within the concept of financial leverage.

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Financial Leverage

  • Financial leverage is most easily defined as the use of debt to be reinvested to generate a higher return on investment (ROI) than the cost of debt (interest).

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Financial Leverage

  • Because of financial leverage, owners and investors generally like to see debt on a company’s balance sheet because if it is reinvested well, it will provide more of a return on the money they have invested.

  • Conversely, lenders and creditors generally do not like to see too much debt on a company’s balance sheet because the more debt a company has, the less likely it will be able to generate enough money to pay off its debt.

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Ratio Comparisons

  • Ratios are most useful when they compare a company’s actual performance to a previous time period, competitor company results, industry averages, or budgeted (planned for) results.

  • When a ratio is compared to a standard or goal, the resulting differences (if differences exist) can tell you much about the financial performance (health) of the company you are evaluating.

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Types of Ratios

  • Managerial accountants working in the hospitality industry use:

    • Liquidity Ratios

    • Solvency Ratios

    • Activity Ratios

    • Profitability Ratios

    • Investor Ratios

    • Hospitality Specific Ratios

  • Most numbers for these ratios can be found on a company’s income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows.

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Liquidity Ratios

  • Liquidity is defined as the ease at which current assets can be converted to cash in a short period of time (less than 12 months).

  • Liquidity ratios have been developed to assess just how readily current assets could be converted to cash, as well as how much current liabilities those current assets could pay.

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Liquidity Ratios

  • Three widely used liquidity ratios and working capital are:

    • Current Ratio

    • Quick (Acid-Test) Ratio

    • Operating Cash Flows to Current Liabilities Ratio

    • Working Capital

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Solvency Ratios

  • Solvency ratios help managers evaluate a company’s ability to pay long term debt.

  • Solvency ratios are important because they provide lenders and owners information about a business’s ability to withstand operating losses incurred by the business. These ratios are:

    • Solvency Ratio

    • Debt to Equity Ratio

    • Debt to Assets Ratio

    • Operating Cash Flows to Total Liabilities Ratio

    • Times Interest Earned Ratio

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Activity Ratios

  • The purpose of computing activity ratios is to assess management’s ability to effectively utilize the company’s assets.

  • Activity ratios measure the “activity” of a company’s selected assets by creating ratios that measure the number of times these assets turn over (are replaced).

  • This assesses management’s efficiency in handling inventories and long-term assets.

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Activity Ratios

  • These ratios are also known as turnover ratios or efficiency ratios.

  • In this section you will learn about the following activity ratios:

    • Inventory Turnover

    • Property and Equipment (Fixed Asset) Turnover

    • Total Asset Turnover

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Inventory Turnover

  • Inventory turnover refers to the number of times the total value of inventory has been purchased and replaced in an accounting period.

  • In restaurants, we calculate food and beverage inventory turnover ratios.

  • See Go Figure! for calculations (after Figure 6.5)

  • The obvious question is, “Are the food and beverage turnover ratios good or bad?”

  • The answer to this question is relative to the target (desired) turnover ratios.

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Profitability Ratios

  • It is the job of management to generate profits for the company’s owners, and profitability ratios measure how well management has accomplished this task.

  • There are a variety of profitability ratios used by managerial accountants:

    • Profit Margin

    • Gross Operating Profit Margin (Operating Efficiency)

    • Return on Assets

    • Return on Owner’s Equity

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Investor Ratios

  • Investor ratios assess the performance of earnings and stocks of a company.

  • Investors use these ratios to choose new stocks to buy and to monitor stocks they already own.

  • Investors are interested in two types of returns from their stock investments:

    • Money that can be earned from the sale of stocks at higher prices than originally paid

    • Money that can be earned through the distribution of dividends

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Investor Ratios

  • Investors use many different ratios to make decisions on investments:

    • Earnings per Share

    • Price/Earnings Ratio

    • Dividend Payout Ratio

    • Dividend Yield Ratio

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Hospitality Specific Ratios

  • The numbers used to create these ratios are often found on daily, weekly, monthly or yearly operating reports that managers design to fit their operational needs.

  • Ratios in this section are calculated for:

    • Hotels

    • Restaurants

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Hotel Ratios

  • The hotel-specific ratios in this section are:

    • Occupancy Percentage

    • Average Daily Rate (ADR)

    • Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR)

    • Revenue Per Available Customer (RevPAC)

    • Cost Per Occupied Room (CPOR)

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Occupancy Percentage

  • Hotel managers and owners are interested in the occupancy percentage (percentage of rooms sold in relation to rooms available for sale) because occupancy percentage is one measure of a hotel’s effectiveness in selling rooms.

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Occupancy Percentage

  • Variations on Room Occupancy

    • Out of order (OOO) rooms, meaning that repairs, renovation, or construction is being done and the rooms are not sellable and must be subtracted

    • Complimentary occupancy (percentage of rooms provided on a complimentary or ‘comp’ basis - free of charge),

    • Average occupancy per room (average number of guests occupying each room)

    • Multiple occupancy (percentage of rooms occupied by two or more people)

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Occupancy Percentage

  • Occupancy percentage can used to compare a hotel’s performance to previous accounting periods, to forecasted or budgeted results, to similar hotels, and to published industry averages or standards.

  • Industry averages and other hotel statistics are readily available through companies such as Smith Travel Research (STR). Smith Travel Research is a compiler and distributor of hotel industry data.

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Average Daily Rate (ADR)

  • Hoteliers are interested in the average daily rate (ADR) they achieve during an accounting period.

  • ADR is the average amount for which a hotel sells its rooms.

  • Most hotels offer their guests the choice of several different room types.

  • Each specific room type will likely sell at a different nightly rate.

  • When a hotel reports its total nightly revenue, however, its overall average daily rate is computed.

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Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR)

  • High occupancy percentages can be achieved by selling rooms inexpensively, and high ADRs can be achieved at the sacrifice of significantly lowered occupancy percentages.

  • Hoteliers have developed a measure of performance that combines these two ratios to compute revenue per available room (RevPAR).

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Revenue Per Available Customer (RevPAC)

  • Hotel managers are interested in the revenue per available customer (RevPAC) (revenues generated by each customer) because guests spend money on many products in a hotel in addition to rooms.

  • RevPAC is especially helpful when comparing two groups of guests.

  • Groups that generate a high RevPAC are preferable to groups that generate a lower RevPAC.

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Cost Per Occupied Room (CPOR)

  • Cost per occupied room (CPOR) is a ratio that compares specific costs in relation to number of occupied rooms.

  • CPOR is computed for guest amenity costs, housekeeping costs, laundry costs, in-room entertainment costs, security costs, and a variety of other costs.

  • CPOR can be used to compare one type of cost in a hotel to other hotels within a chain, a company, a region of the country, or to any other standard deemed appropriate by the hotel’s managers or owners.

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Restaurant Ratios

  • The restaurant-specific ratios in this section are:

    • Cost of Food Sold (Cost of Sales: Food)

    • Cost of Beverage Sold (Cost of Sales: Beverage)

    • Food Cost Percentage

    • Beverage Cost Percentage

    • Average Sales per Guest (Check Average)

    • Seat Turnover

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Cost of Food Sold (Cost of Sales: Food)

  • Cost of food sold (cost of sales: food) is the dollar amount of all food expenses incurred during the accounting period.

  • Cost of goods sold is a general term for cost of any products sold.

  • For restaurants, cost of goods sold as referenced in the inventory turnover section of this chapter refers to cost of food sold and cost of beverage sold.

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Cost of Beverage Sold (Cost of Sales: Beverage)

  • Cost of beverage sold (cost of sales: beverage) is the dollar amount of all beverage expenses incurred during the accounting period.

  • The cost of beverage sold is calculated in the same way as cost of food sold except that the products are alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, and spirits).

  • Employee meals are not subtracted because employees are not drinking alcoholic beverages.

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Food Cost Percentage

  • A restaurant’s food cost percentage is the ratio of the restaurant’s cost of food sold (cost of sales: food) and its food revenue (sales).

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Beverage Cost Percentage

  • A restaurant’s beverage cost percentage is the ratio of the restaurant’s cost of beverage sold (cost of sales: beverage) and its beverage revenue (sales).

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Labor Cost Percentage

  • Restaurateurs are very interested in the labor cost percentage, which is the portion of total sales that was spent on labor expenses.

  • It is typically not in the best interest of restaurant operators to reduce the total amount they spend on labor. In most foodservice situations, managers want to serve more guests, and that typically requires additional staff.

  • Many managers feel it is more important to control labor costs than product costs because, for many of them, labor and labor-related costs comprise a larger portion of their operating budgets than do the food and beverage products they sell.

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Average Sales per Guest (Check Average)

  • Average sales per guest (check average) is the average amount of money spent per customer during a given accounting period.

  • This measure of “sales per guest” is important because it carries information needed to monitor menu item popularity, estimate staffing requirements, and even determine purchasing procedures.

  • It also allows a financial analyst to measure a chain’s effectiveness in increasing sales to its current guests, rather than increasing sales simply by opening additional restaurants.

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Average Sales per Guest (Check Average)

  • The check average ratio can be used to compare a restaurant’s performance to previous accounting periods, to forecasted or budgeted results, to similar restaurants, and to published industry averages or standards.

  • Industry averages and other restaurant statistics are readily available through publications such as the Restaurant Industry Operations Report published by the National Restaurant Association.

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Seat Turnover

  • Seat turnover measures the number of times seats change from the current diner to the next diner in a given accounting period.

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Comparative Analysis of Ratios

  • Like many other types of financial data, a company’s financial ratios are often compared to previous accounting periods, to forecasted or budgeted results, or to published industry averages or standards.

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Ratio Analysis Limitations

  • One weakness inherent in an over-dependency on financial ratios is that ratios, by themselves, may be less meaningful unless compared to those of previous accounting periods, budgeted results, industry averages, or similar properties.

  • Another limitation is that financial ratios do not measure a company’s intellectual capital assets such as brand name, potential for growth, and intellectual or human capital when assessing a company’s true worth.

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Review of Learning Outcomes

  • State the purpose and value of calculating and using ratios to analyze the health of a hospitality business.

  • Distinguish between liquidity, solvency, activity, profitability, investor, and hospitality-specific ratios.

  • Compute and analyze the most common ratios used in the hospitality industry.

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