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Chapter 4: Integumentary System. Entry Task1/7. Brainstorm AND record 3 possible functions of the integumentary (skin) system…. Wednesday 1/7. Mini-Quiz: Body Tissues Begin CH 4: Skin & Body Membranes Worksheet: Skin Structure Take notes from PowerPoint Integumentary System

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Chapter 4: Integumentary System

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Chapter 4 integumentary system l.jpg

Chapter 4: Integumentary System


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Entry Task1/7

Brainstorm AND record 3 possible functions of the integumentary (skin) system…


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Wednesday 1/7

  • Mini-Quiz: Body Tissues

  • Begin CH 4: Skin & Body Membranes

    • Worksheet: Skin Structure

  • Take notes from PowerPoint

    • Integumentary System

      • Function Melanin

      • p.108-114


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Skin & Body Membranes

  • Epithelial tissue membrane (3 types)

    • Cutaneous

      • Stratified squamous on a layer of dense fibrous connective tissue

    • Mucous

      • Stratified squamous on simple columnar

    • Serous

      • Simple squamous on areolar tissue


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A Closer Look at the Serosa…

  • Parietal layer

    • lines ventral cavity, folds on itself to form visceral layer

  • Visceral layer

    • covers outside of organs in cavity

    • Serous fluid fills the pocket


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The Serosa


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Skin & Body Membranes, cont…

  • Connective tissue membranes

    • Synovial

      • Soft areolar connective tissue

      • NO epithelial cells


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Functions of I.S.

  • Protects from:

    • Mechanical, chemical, bacterial, UV, thermal, & dessication

  • Heat loss/retention

  • Excretion of urea/uric acid

  • Makes Vitamin D

  • Tells us about external environment


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Structure

  • Epidermis

    • Stratified squamous

  • Dermis

    • Dense fibrous conn. tissue

  • Hypodermis

    • Adipose tissue

Firmly connected together!


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Skin Structure


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Epidermis

  • 5 layers called “strata” (deep to superficial)

    • stratum basale

    • stratum spinosum

    • stratum granulosum

    • stratum lucidum

    • stratum corneum

  • Avascular—no blood supply

  • Keratinocytes—produce keratin


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Epidermis of Thick Skin


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A Closer Look at the Strata…

  • Stratum basale

    • deepest layer

    • receives nutrients

    • constantly dividing

  • Stratum spinosum

  • Stratum granulosum

    • Cells become flatter, full of keratin

  • Stratum lucidum

    • Cells beginning to die, extra thick, hairless skin

  • Stratum corneum

    • DEAD!!!

    • 20-30 cell layers thick


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Fun Facts

  • Every 25-45 days, you have a completely NEW epidermis!

  • Everything you see when you look at someone else is DEAD! Gross!


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Melanin

  • Melanin is a pigment

    • yellow to brown to black

    • Melanocytes make the pigment

  • Freckles/moles

    • Melanin is concentrated in 1 area


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Dermis

  • Your dermis is your “hide”

    • Strong, stretchy envelope

    • Dense fibrous conn. tissue

      • Collagen

      • Elastic fibers

    • 2 Regions:

      • Papillary layer—upper dermis

        • House pain receptors/free nerve endings & touch receptors (Meissner’s corpuscles)

      • Reticular layer—deepest skin layer

        • Pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles)


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Dermis, continued…

  • Blood Vessels—maintain homeostasis

  • Rich nerve supply


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Entry Task1/8

  • Explain the function of the stratum basale of the epidermal layer.

  • Why do we get wrinkled, saggy skin as we age? Be sure to identify the layer of skin involved in your answer.

  • What part of skin do you think pain receptors are found in? Touch receptors?


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Tuesday3/25

Explore the function of cutaneous receptors through a series of lab activities!

  • Review Entry Task

  • Complete Cutaneous Receptors lab activity!

    HW: Read p. 116-124


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Wednesday3/26

  • Finish “Cutaneous Receptors” Activity

  • Activity: Make a Sweat Map!

  • PowerPoint covering p.116-124

    • Take notes!!!


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Skin Color

  • 3 Pigments

    • Melanin

    • Carotene

    • Oxygen-rich hemoglobin

  • Alterations in skin color

    • redness/erythema

    • pallor/blanching

    • jaundice

    • bruises


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Appendages of the Skin

  • Includes:

    • cutaneous glands, hair, hair follicles, and nails

  • Exocrine glands—release secretions through ducts

    • 2 Types

      • Sebaceous glands (oil)

      • Sudoriferous glands (sweat)


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Sebaceous Glands (Oil)

  • All over skin (not on palms/feet)

  • Empties into hair follicles

  • Secretes sebum—oil & fragmented cells

    • Keeps skin soft

    • Has chemicals that kill bacteria

    • Clogged duct = whitehead


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Sudoriferous Glands (sweat)

  • 2.5 million/person

  • 2 Types: Eccrine & Apocrine

  • Eccrine

    • More common, produces sweat

    • Heat regulation

    • 7L sweat on a hot day!


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Sudoriferous Glands, cont…

  • Apocrine

    • Mainly in axillary & genital area

    • Larger than eccrine glands

    • Secretes fatty acid/protein along with other components

    • Bacteria have a hay day!!!


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Hair & Hair Follicles

  • Components:

    • Follicle: produces hair

    • Shaft: part of hair exposed to environment

    • Root: part of hair enclosed in the follicle

    • Medulla: central core

    • Cortex: area between medulla & cuticle

    • Cuticle: heavily keratinized; shingles

    • Arrector pili: smooth muscle, connects follicle to tissue

    • Matrix: growth zone

    • Hair bulb: contain melanocytes


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Nails

  • Components:

    • Free edge

    • Body

    • Root: embedded in skin

    • Nail folds: sides of nails, connected to skin

    • Cuticle: thick proximal nail fold

    • Lanula: crescent

    • Nail bed: extends beneath the nail

    • Nail matrix: thick part of nail bed; growth


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Homeostatic Imbalances

  • Over 1000 ailments of the skin!

    • Mostly allergies, fungus, burns, & cancer

  • Athlete’s foot—fungus

  • Boils/carbuncles—inflamed oil glands

  • Cold sores—herpes virus

  • Contact dermatitis—chemical contact

  • Impetigo—bacterial infection

  • Psoriasis—autoimmune disorder


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Burns

  • Def: Tissue damage/cell death caused by intense heat

  • Skin = thick as a paper towel

  • Almost all body systems suffer when skin is burned

  • 2 life threatening problems: fluid loss & kidney shutdown/circulatory shock


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Burns, cont…

  • Rule of Nines:

    • Body divided into 11 areas, each covering 9% surface area

    • Helps determine volume of fluid lost

  • Infection is leading cause of death

  • Burns are sterile 24 hours after

    • Then pathogens invade


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Burn Classification

  • 1° Burn

    • Epidermis damaged

    • Red, swollen

    • Lasts 2-3 days

    • EX: sunburn


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Burn Classification

  • 2° Burn

    • Epidermis & Upper Dermis damaged

    • Red, painful blisters

    • Regrowth can occur

    • No permanent scarring if taken care of


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Burn Classification

  • 3° Burn

    • Entire thickness of skin destroyed

    • Blanched/Black

    • No pain—nerves destroyed

    • Regeneration not possible

    • Skin grafting


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Burn Classification

  • CRITICAL burns meet this criteria:

    • 25+% of the body has 2° burns

    • 10% has 3° burns

    • 3° burns on the face, hands, and/or feet


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Skin Cancer

  • Most common of all cancers

  • 1 in 5 people will have skin cancer in their lifetime

  • 3 Types

    • Basal cell carcinoma

    • Squamous cell carcinoma

    • Malignant melanoma


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Basal Cell Carcinoma

  • Least malignant, most common

  • No keratin/boundary formed by stratum basale

  • Invades dermis/hypodermis

  • On face, shiny, slow-growing

  • Full cure @ 99% in most cases


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Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Stratum spinosum

  • Scaly, reddened papule

  • Shallow ulcer, raised border

  • Scalp, ears, hands, lips

  • Fast growing

  • If caught early full recovery can be made


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Malignant Melanoma

  • Cancer of melanocytes

  • 5+% cases are melanoma

  • Appears spontaneously, develops from pigmented moles

  • brown to black patches

  • 50% survival rate


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ABCD Rule

  • Asymmetry

    • 2 sides of mole/spot don’t match

  • Border irregularity

    • Borders not smooth, have indents

  • Color

    • Different colors, range from black/brown/tan, blues/reds

  • Diameter

    • 6+ mm


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Thursday3/27

  • Finish PowerPoint Notes

  • Begin Review assignment

    • P.127 MC: #1-2, 4, 6-7; SA: #1-4, 6-11, 13;

      At the Clinic: #1-4

Identify different types of burns and skin cancers


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Friday3/28

  • Correct Review

  • Play Flyswatter Review game

  • Test over all of CH 4 on Monday after break!

Have a Great Spring Break!


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