Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Great Britain. 1760 AD – 1840 AD in England 1800s-1900s in France and Germany 1840s -1920s in United States. Industrial England: "Workshop of the World". That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte.
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Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Great Britain
1760 AD – 1840 AD in England
1800s-1900s in France and Germany
1840s -1920s in United States
of the World"
That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte
How many objects do you have about you or can you see in the room that are handmade?
This is a description of a journey by Queen Anne in 1704 from Windsor to Petworth – a journey of 40 miles. What does it tell us about transport at the time?
A series of inventions that built on principles of mass production, mechanization and interchangeable parts
Josiah Wedgwood developed a mold for pottery that replaced the potters wheel, making mass production possible
Before 1850, railroads and trains were made of iron
Iron is brittle
Railroads were unsafe
1850 Henry Bessemer (England) invents a way to turn iron ore into steel
The Industrial Revolution
The Spinning Mill
In the 18th century, English merchants were leaders in world commerce. It created a demand for more goods and a cheaper system of production. Besides, there were new ideas in England : an interest in scientific investigation and invention, and the doctrine of “laissez-faire” : letting business be regulated by supply and demand rather than by laws. Most important of all, new machines and techniques were developed by British inventors (for example : James Hargreaves, James Watt, John Blenkinsop…)
Consequences on society
The Agricultural Revolution
During the early 1700's, a great change in farming called the Agricultural Revolution began in Great Britain.
The revolution resulted from a series of discoveries and inventions that made farming much more productive than ever before.
By the mid-1800's, the Agricultural Revolution had spread throughout much of Europe and North America.
One of the revolution's chief effects was the rapid growth of towns and cities in Europe and the United States during the 1800's.
Because fewer people were needed to produce food, farm families by the thousands moved to the towns and cities.
*These advances displaced smaller farmers who now needed new employment
*Provided large land-owning farmers with more money to invest
15th and 18th
The Open-field System
People have to walk over your strips to reach theirs
Field left fallow
Difficultto take advantage of new farming techniques
No hedges or fences
No proper drainage
Animals can trample crops and spread disease
Because land in different fields takes time to get to each field
happening to population?
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
A. Farming Changes: During the 1700’s, farmers were able to reclaim more land to plant, made better use of land, and used fertilizer to improve the soil.
B. Enclosure Movement: In the 1700’s, rich landowners and the English Parliament began taking away land from peasants and were able to harvest more which made farming profitable.
This meant enclosing the land with fences or hedges.
The open fields were divided up and everyone who could prove they owned some land would get a share.
Dividing the open land into small fields and putting hedges and fences around them.
Everyone had their own fields and could use them how they wished.
Open land and common land would also be enclosed and divided up.
The Enclosure Movement
“Enclosed” Lands Today
So did people want to enclose their land?
So what’s wrong with that?
Nothing - if you could
prove you owned the land,
if you had the money for
fences and hedges and if you
could afford to pay the
commissioners to come
and map the land,
not to mention the cost of an Act
Better food production methods are developed. Nitrogen was recognized as an important fertilizer. Turnips and clover replaced lost nutrients. Science and Agriculture merged.
The appliance of organic chemistry solved the old problem of keeping soil fertile.
A scientist, Justus von Leibig, discovered that chemicals known as nitrates and phosphates were the most important nutrients needed by plants and crops.
The best source for this was crushed animal bones which could be spread on the fields.
New machines meant less people were needed to work the land - so there was unemployment, enclosure meant people lost land - this meant losing their homes as they had nowhere to grow food and there was little work- so they moved to towns.
In addition there were change in the
way the land looked from
open fields to a sort of patchwork quilt.
Changes in the shape of a village
as people could build on their own land
Agricultural production increased
Cost of foodstuffs dropped
Increased production of food resulted in part, in a rapid growth of population
Large farms, using machines and scientific methods, began to dominate agriculture
Number of small farms began to decline
The number of farmers, in proportion to total population, decreased sharply
Many farmers moved to the cities
The population of cities increased rapidly
Farmers found their work less difficult because machines performed the back breaking labor
Farming changed from a self-sufficient way of life to big business
"The weak position of the guilds in Britain in the eighteenth century can go some way in explaining the series of technological successes we usually refer to as the British Industrial Revolution and why it occurred in Britain rather than on the European continent, although clearly this was only one of many variables at work."
– Mokyr, Joel, The Gifts of Athena, Princeton University Press, 2002, p.260.
Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
Metals, Woolens, & Canals
Coalfields & Industrial Areas
Mine & Forge [1840-1880]
Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914
Output of Coal and Lignite - Selected Countries, Annual Averages
(in million metric tonnes)
Output of Pig Iron - Selected Countries, Annual Averages
(in thousand metric tons)
British Pig Iron Production
How do historians know how many people lived in Britain in 1750?
(tentative estimates in millions - much of it guesswork)
Society During the Industrial Revolution
Urbanization-The movement of people from the country to the city.
Social Classes during the Industrial Revolution
Upper class elite, 5%(owned most of the country’s wealth)
Middle classes, 15% (women worked at home raising kids)
Lower classes, 80% (lived mostly in tenement housing-tightly packed apartment like housing)
a)John Kay---flying shuttle
b)James Hargreaves---spinning jenny
d)Samuel Crompton---spinning mule
e)Edmund Cartwright---power loom
(all of these led to the development of textile factories)
f)James Watt---steam engine
g)Henry Bessemer---inexpensive way to make steel
h)Thomas Telford & John McAdam---paving roads
i)Richard Trevithick---steam locomotive
John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
The Power Loom
James Watt’s Steam Engine
First class and mail
Manchester-Liverpool Trains (1830)
Produced 20% of industrial goods
Gross national product rose 4x
Inventors took inventions abroad
Belgium’s coal and iron resources
Germany iron and wool factories
France slow to industrialize
Mechanization came but late
Other Countries soon followed the example of Great Britain’s industrialization
Percentage Distribution of the World's Manufacturing Production,
1870 and 1913
(percentage of world total)
The Rate of Industrial Growth in Five Selected Countries
Indices of Industrial Production
(Base Figures - 1905-13 = 100)
Industrialization By 1850
Why Western Countries?
Industrialization soon spread to western Europe and the United States. Other regions did not industrialize in the 1800s. What was it about Western countries that encouraged them to embrace industry?
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Huge cities like Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool grew rapidly out of obscure village, and Lancashire, London, Clyde, and the black country” engulfed old rural beauty. Village life crumbled, and the population massively migrated to new centres of manufacture.
With the progress of medicine, the population increased and more people needed to be fed. Fields were fertilised and closed with thick stone walls to be easier to cultivate.
Canals were opened all over Britain, the first one in 1757. They enabled the transportation of industrial goods at a low cost.
The use of machines meant that workers had to be gathered in one single place, the factory. Many people left their villages in the hope of finding work in the cities. In big industrial cities, houses were built very fast to house the numerous workers arriving from the country. These districts were invaded by disease and revolt.
Railways developed : in 1825 a line opened between Stockton and Darlington and another one was inaugurated in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester.
United Kingdom7,4 billions15 billions23 billions
England/Wales10 billions18 billions
Urbanisation rate (UK)19 %37%
A Day in the life of a Yorkshire girl
This testimony was gathered by Lord Ashley when he conducted an investigation into the conditions of labour in mines. His report led to the mines Act of 1842 that prohibited the employment in the mines of children under thirteen.
Patiente Kershaw, 17-May 15, 1842
“My father has been dead about a year ; my mother is living and has ten children, five lads and five lasses ; the oldest is about thirty, the youngest is four ; three lasses go to mill ; all the lads work at the pit ; mother does nothing but look after home.
I never went to day-school ; I go to Sunday-school but I cannot read or write ; I go to pit at five o’clock in the morning and come out at five in the evening ; I get my breakfast of porridge and milk first ; I take my dinner with me, a cake, and eat it as I go ; I do not stop or rest any time ;I get nothing else until I get home, and then I have potatoes and meat - not meat every day.
At the pit, I hurry the corves about a mile under ground and back ; I wear a belt and chain to get the corves out ; the getters that I work for are naked except their caps ; they pull off all their clothes ; sometimes they beat me, if I am not quick enough ; the boys take liberties with me sometimes they pull me about ; I am the only girl. I would rather work in mill than in coal-pit.”
The girl is an ignorant, fithy, deplorable-looking object, one that the uncivilized natives of the prairies would be shocked to look upon.
Parliamentary Papers, 1842.
The brickyards of England - Children carrying clay
Young girl pulling a corve