October 27, 2004. Comet Hale-Bopp. 2. Discovery of C/Hale-Bopp. Discovered in 1995 by Alan Hale (professional astronomer in New Mexico, left figure) and Thomas Bopp (amateur astronomer in Arizona)Both were observing at their home locations on the evening of July 22nd-23rd, 1995 with their amateur
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1. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 1 Comet C/Hale-Bopp Christina O. Lee
2. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 2 Discovery of C/Hale-Bopp Discovered in 1995 by Alan Hale (professional astronomer in New Mexico, left figure) and Thomas Bopp (amateur astronomer in Arizona)
Both were observing at their home locations on the evening of July 22nd-23rd, 1995 with their amateur telescopes
Hale-Bopp located at 7.15 AU, just outside the Jupiter orbit!
3. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 3 C for Long Period ~ 4200 yrs ago since last appearance
~2380 yrs for next appearance
Earth: March 27, 1997 @ 1.315 AU
Sun: April 1, 1997 @ 0.914 AU
4. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 4 Some Properties of the Nucleus Known from measurements:
R ? 30 km (2nd largest comet!)
Spin Period ? 11.5
Obliquity ? 86 degrees
Unknown, but guess:
Density ? 700 kg m-3
Specific heat ? 1400 J kg-1 K-1
Bond Albedo ? 0.04
Emissivity ? 0.9
5. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 5 Orbital Parameters
6. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 6 Not two but three tails Ion tail (H20+), dust tail, and atomic sodium tail
Na tail gets brighter with increasing distance from the nucleus whereas ion/dust tails decrease in brightness
Likely explanation: Extended Na sources operate down the dust tail
7. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 7 Striae System of narrow, nearly rectilinear bands that usually appear in comets < 1 AU from the sun, after perihelion
For Hale-Bopp it was observed BEFORE perihelion at distances > 1AU
Bands do not converge at nucleus and they usually converge at the comet-Sun line on the sunward side
Recurring particle outbursts w/ periodicity of 11h21m from one source of the hale-Bopp nucleus
Particle fragmentation models consider ejection time of parent particles, their acceleration by solar radiation pressure, and time of fragmentation to study the motion of the striae in the dust tail
8. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 8 Noble gas detection! A first-ever detection of noble gas found in a comet!
discovered during closest approach (03/27/97) using UV spectra by Stern et. al. (SwRI)
presence/absence of noble gas provides a way of measuring thermal history of comets since noble gases do not interact chemically w/ other elements & they are easily lost from icy bodies at very low temperatures through processes much like evaporation
9. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 9 Implications from Ar detection SwRI spectra showed that the Ar abundance was so high that it indicated the comet has always been quite cold and likely formed in the deep outer reaches of the solar system
results indicate that Hale-Bopp was likely formed in the Uranus-Neptune zone (a KBO?), not from the Jupiter zone
High Ar abundance may help explain the unexpected argon abundance found by Galileo Jupiter entry probe
Jupiter seeded with extra argon by the impact of many comets like Hale-Bopp (?)
10. October 27, 2004 Comet Hale-Bopp 10 References Wealth of Hale-Bopp information and cool pictures at:
E. Kuhrt, H20 Activity of Comet Hale-Bopp, Space Sci. Rev., 90, 75, 1999.
Pittichova, J., Z. Sekanina, K. Birkle, H. Boehnhardt, D. Engels, P. Keller, An early investigation of the striated tail of comet Hale-Bopp, EP and S, 78, 329, 1997.
Wilson, J. K., J. Baumgardner, and M. Mendillo, Three Tails of comet Hale-Bopp, GRL, 25, 225, 1998.