Friends! Veterinary medicine is a highly respected and compassionate profession. However, its contri...
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Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses

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Friends! Veterinary medicine is a highly respected and compassionate profession. However, its contributions are largely unappreciated because our colleagues have been too busy serving the public to publicize their contributions to animal and human health, animal welfare, food safety and food security

Dr. Nicole Seng Lai Giea

Veterinary Public Health andZoonoses

Recent zoonoses

  • BSE

  • Hendra virus

  • Nipah virus

  • Menangle viral infection

  • SARS

  • RVF ( never seen outside Africa before 2000, outbreaks in Arabian peninsula in 2000)

  • HPAI

Important zoonoses in Malaysia

  • Rabies

  • JE

  • Nipah virus

  • Brucellosis

  • Contagious ecthyma

  • Meliodosis

  • tuberculosis

  • Leptospirosis

  • Toxoplasmosis

  • Salmonellosis

  • Staphylococcal infection

  • Ornithosis

  • Cat scratch disease

  • Dermatomycosis

  • Erysipelothrix

  • Campylobacteriosis

  • Dirofilariosis

  • Sporothrichosis

  • Q-fever

  • influenza

  • monkeypox

Veterinary Public Health

  • Is seen by WHO “ as a linkage between veterinary medicine and human health

  • Aim: promote the well being, protect and improve the quality of life


  • “ the contribution to the complete physical, mental and social well being of humans through an understanding and application of veterinary medical science ”(WHO, 1999)

What can we do for you?

Transportation & Working activities


Food production

Animal products

eg: clothing


  • Those infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animal and man

  • Animals act as reservoir for causative agents

Zoonoses impacts

  • Affect well-being of man – morbidity, mortality, and anxiety

  • Loss of animals—dead, culled, destroyed

  • Loss of productivity – prevent eficient production of food

  • Obstacles to international trade in animals and animal products

Social and economic losses

Man and animal relationship


  • A zoonotic disease maintained in nature primarily by animal to animal transmission of the infectious agent

  • rabies

  • bovine tuberculosis

  • cat scratch disease

  • brucellosis



  • an infectious disease in which a disease causing agent carried by humans is transferred to other animals

  • It may cause the same disease or a different disease in other animals

  • It can also be defined as a human-to-human infection with no animal vector


  • the zoonoses

    include infectionn

    transmitted from humans to animals

  • human tuberculosis


  • zoonotic disease maintained in nature both by animal to animal and human to human transmission

  • staphylococcosis,

  • streptococcosis,

  • influenza

Classification of zoonoses based on transmission mode

1. Direct zoonoses

  • Require one vertebrate species to propagate

    V1 ---------------------V1

  • No developmental change or propagation of the organism occurs during the transmission

  • eg: rabies, brucellosis

    2. Cyclozoonosis

  • Require at least two (2) vertebrate species, no invertebrate species


  • eg: taeniasis,

3. Metazoonosis

  • Require a vertebrate and an invertebrate species , agents multiplies and/or develops in an invertebrate host before transmission


  • eg: babesiosis

    4. Saprozoonosis

  • Requires a vertebrate species and an in inanimate object or a non-animal development site such as plants, soil, and foods


  • Mycotic diseases

Components of infectious disease process

  • Infectious agents

  • Reservoirs

  • Portal of entry

  • Mode of transmission

  • Host immunity

  • Infectious agents: an organism that is capable of producing infection

  • Infection: entry, development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of man or animals, the result may be inapparent (subclinical) or shows clinical manifestation (infectious disease)

  • Inapparent infection: the presence of infection in the host without recognizable clinical signs or symptoms, they are usually detected through diagnostic test (host=carrier)

  • Infectious disease: a clinical manifest disease o man or animal resulting from an infection

  • Communicable disease:  an infectious disease transmissible 

    (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual’s discharges or by direct means (as by a vector)

  • Contagious disease : an infectious disease communicable by contact with one who has it, with a bodily discharge of such a patient, or with an object touched by such a patient or bodily discharge (indrect means)

Infectious agents

  • Bactria--anthrax, brucellosis

  • Virus—rabies and influenza

  • Parasit--Cysticercosis/Taeniasis

  • Rickettsia

  • Fungus--sporotrichosis. 

  • Chlamydia--psittacosis

  • Prion -- variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)

Modes of transmission of infectious agents

  • Direct

  • Indirect

  • Air-borne

Modes of transmission of infectious agents

  • Direct transmission:

    immediate transfer of an organism to receptive portal of entry in man through which infection may take place

  • Direct contact– touching, biting, scratching

  • Direct projection – projection of droplet spray onto conjunctiva or mucous membrane or mouth

Modes of transmission of infectious agents

  • Indirect transmission:

    transmission of infectious organism from the source/reservoir through contaminated materials or objects or vectors

    a. vehicle-borne – by any non-living(inanimate)

    or objects (fomites) which serves as intermediate means by which the organism are transmitted to susceptible host

    b. vector-borne- by living arthropod, such as insects , mites, ticks, fleas which transmit the infective form of agent to susceptible host

    b. I mechanical host

    b. II biological host


  • Mechanical host:

    Infectious agents are carried through its soiled feet or proboscis or by the passages o the agents in the GIT

  • Biological host:

    Infectious agents undergo propagation/

    multiplication ,cyclic development or a combination to become infective forms before they are transmitted


  • Dissemination of microbial aerosols to a suitable portal of entry, usually the respiratory tract

  • Microbial aerosols

  • suspensions of particles in the air or a long periods of time

  • consisting of partially or wholly of microorganisms, some retaining and other losing virulence

  • Small size (1-5µm) are easily drawn into the alveoli

  • Droplet nuclei

  • dust

Modes of transmission

Reservoir ( of an infectious agent)

  • Is the normal habitat in which the infectious agent lives, multiplies and grows that can be transmitted to a susceptible host

  • Types of carrier

  • Inapparent carrier

  • Incubatory carrier

  • Convalescent carrier

Portal of entry

  • Six portals in the body

  • Respiratory tract

  • Conjunctiva

  • Urogenital tract

  • GIT

  • Skin (intact, broken, abraded)

  • placenta

Host immunity

Host immunity

Animals and me

Beneficial or hazardous??

What can you do?

Functions of veterinarians and personals in VPH

  • Control and prevention of zoonoses

  • Safety of foods of animal origins

  • Disposal of animal waste

  • Comparative medicine

  • Laboratory animal

  • Hazardous/toxic animal

Functions of veterinarians and personals in VPH

  • Diagnosis, surveillance, epidemiology, control, prevention and elimination of zoonoses

  • Food protection,meatinspectation

  • Management of health aspects of laboratory animal facilities and diagnostic laboratories

  • Biomedical research

  • Health education and extension; and production and control of biological products and medical devices

  • Other VPH core domains may include management of domestic and wild animal populations, protection of drinking-water and the environment, and management of public health emergencies


  • We, the Vets, through our remit to facilitate and encourage veterinary development and services, we can improve the health and welfare of both human and animals

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