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A little History. Psychology 3717. History is almost the coolest discipline around. Well besides psychology…. 19 th century Wilhelm Wundt Didn’t really study memory But he started experimental psychology Sensation / perception Elemental processes. Ebbinghaus.

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a little history

A little History

Psychology 3717

history is almost the coolest discipline around
History is almost the coolest discipline around
  • Well besides psychology….
  • 19th century
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • Didn’t really study memory
  • But he started experimental psychology
  • Sensation / perception
  • Elemental processes
ebbinghaus
Ebbinghaus
  • Well, these were all great ideas, but had not been tested.
  • Cue Hermann Ebbinghaus
  • Strangely, both the behaviourists and the cognitive types claim him as their own
  • Nonsense syllables
ebbinghaus1
Ebbinghaus
  • Studied himself
  • Found savings
  • Repetition was key
  • Classic forgetting curve
  • Contiguity
  • Reversal was detrimental, so it was not just contiguity but also contingency
more on ebby
More on ebby
  • Also found interference
  • Found the magic 7
  • Figured out that chunking would happen
  • Massed vs. distributed practice
  • Not bad for a career eh!
  • But some dispute his importance
  • They are idiots….
william james
William James
  • Stream of consciousness
  • Thought is personal
  • Thought is changing
  • Thought is continuous
  • Thought deals with objects independent of itself
  • It is interested in some things and not others
bill was smart
Bill was smart
  • Talked about primary and secondary memory
  • Talked about memory without awareness
  • Got lots of stuff wrong but again, not bad eh
alfred binet
Alfred Binet
  • Developed the first real intelligence test
  • Was interested in application in a classroom context so he used more naturalistic stimuli
  • Free recall
  • Found serial position effect
  • Looked at errors, early, acoustic, later, semantic
another smarty pants
Another smarty pants
  • Found the importance effect with prose memory
  • Found that phrases remembered better than single words
  • First to find the importance of gist
  • See again, not so bad eh
early 20 th century
Early 20th century
  • The eclipse of cognition (at least in North America)
  • Introspection if fine done Wundt’s way
  • Trained observers
  • Very simple events
  • People working with Titchener too it too far
  • You can’t prove or disprove data from my introspections, you are not me
behaviourism
Behaviourism
  • Watson
  • Interested only in the observable
  • Consciousness cannot be observed
  • Then, neither can memory
  • S-R
  • Basically became all of what psychology was for a long time, well into the 1950s
some resisted
Some resisted
  • The Gestalt psychologists
  • Didn’t like the reductionism of the behaviourists
  • Bartlett was a Brit that fought the good fight
  • Talked about construction
cognitive revolution
Cognitive Revolution
  • Psychology started started to outgrow behaviourism
  • Personality (style)
  • Motivation (dissonance)
  • Linguistics
  • Information theory
the revolutionaries become the establishment
The revolutionaries become the establishment
  • Atkinson Shiffrin model
  • Brenda Milner and HM
  • So there was a model and there was physiological evidence too, pretty much all sewn up
today
Today
  • By the 1970s memory was studied all over the world
  • Tulving
  • Craik
  • Lockhart
  • Slamecka
  • MacLeod
  • Moscovitz
  • Schacter
  • Jacoby
  • Roediger
  • Squire
  • Loftus
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