Interlingual machine translation
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Interlingual Machine Translation

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Interlingual Machine Translation

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:

- 86131031


  • Automated system

  • Analyzes text from Source Language (SL)

  • Produces equivalent text in Target Language (TL)

  • Ideally without human intervention

Source

Language

Target

Language

: :


  • Direct

  • Transfer

  • Interlingual

: :


Direct

.

Transfer

Syntax Semantic .

Interlingual

IL .

: :


  • Direct

  • Transfer

  • Interlingual

: :


  • Direct

  • Transfer

  • Interlingual


  • Three main methodologies for Machine Translation

    • Direct

    • Transfer

    • Interlingual


Large Scale General Purpose

Uniform ,Nonuniform knowledge represantation

Automatic knowledge acquisition

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Uniform and Nonuniform knowledge represantation

Uniform

(Task) .

: .

:

.

: :


Uniform and Nonuniform knowledge represantation

Nonuniform

.

:

.

.

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A Multi-Level Approach to Interlingual MT

Definingthe Interface between Representational Languages

Bonnie J. Dorr and Clare R. Voss

Department of Computer science

University of Maryland

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.

.

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.

Lexicalfor lexicon-based information

Syntacticfor defining phrasestructure

interlingual)or IL) for sentence interpretation

knowledge representational (or KR) for filtering out interpretations that are incompatible with facts in the MT system's knowledge base.

: :


This paper examines the interface between the interlingua and other representation types in an interlingual MT system.

multi-level :

syntactic, IL and KR

And non-uniform approach :

in which distinct representational languages are used for different types of knowledge.

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SL Input

TL Output

SL Syntactic Analysis

TL Syntactic Analysis

IL Composition and Decomposition

SL Lexicon

TL Lexicon

1 6 (Interlingual Machine Translation) 208

KR Filtering and Inference

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1 3 .

1 _ Analysis/synthesis phase :

in which a source-language (SL) sentence is parsed into a syntactic structure .

2 _A composition/decomposition phase :

A SL syntactic structure is composed into an IL representation or an IL representation is decomposed into a TL syntactic structure and lexical items.

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3_ KR phase :

checks the IL representations

filtering out incompatible forms with known facts

Coercing or augmenting IL forms with

logically inferred knowledge in order to resolve an incomplete IL composition.

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Voss Dorr 1993 : IL :

interlingua .

:

(Rosetta, 1994) used an interlinguabased on Montague-grammar.

Mikrokosmos(1994) developed based on their own Text MeaningRepresentation (TMR) language.

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Verkuyl (1994) :a "layered" interlingua in two layer

Discourse Representation Structures

one level a Lexical Conceptual Structures

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PRINCIRAN :

Interpretation and representation of natural language sentences.

3 .

syntactic processing design of PRINCIPAR

(Dorr, Lin, Lee, and Suh (1995))

syntax-IL interface UNITRAN )Dorr, 1993)

IL-KR interface from the LEXITRAN

)Dorr and Voss, 1993(

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German sentence:

Die KircheliegtimS"udenderStadt

.

The church lies in the south of the city

(southern part of the city )

The church lies to the south of the city

(south of the city , outside the city)

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imS"udenderStadt .

1 - south-and-internal

2 - south-and-external

KR filtering function

lexicalknowledge Interlingua .

. KR IL .

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  • Using Default knowledge in the KR

    • Mountains are physical entities, typically distinct and external to cities

    • System chooses second translation

      • The mountain lies to the south of the city

  • Using specific facts in the KR

    • A particular mountain is in the city

    • System overrides default knowledge and chooses first translation

      • The mountain lies in the south of the city


1- sentence-level ( discourse) .

2- PRINCIPAR .

PRINCIPAR DorrLin Lee 1995 .

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3- Parse Tree .

4- Phrase Structure IL KR .

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Defined interfaces between three knowledge levels

1 -Relates IL representations to corresponding syntactic forms by means of lexical entries.

2 - Checks the IL representations in the KR, filtering out those forms incompatible with known facts.

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Defining the Problem Space: Translation Mismatches

. .

translation divergences

.

translation mismatches

.

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translation divergences

Conflational Divergence

  • Translation of two or more words in one language into one word in another language

    • To kick

    • Dar una patada (Give a kick)


translation divergences

Realization of verb arguments in different syntactic configurations in different languages

  • To enter the house

  • Entrar en la casa (Enter in the house)


Lexical Mismach


Spatial Expression Spatial Verb Spatial Predicates .

Spatial Predicate

.

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divergences :

IL .

mismatch :

IL .

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.

mismatch :

KR .

divergences :

IL ( ).

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Interlingua

Interlingua .

1 - Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

2 Lexical Semantic Template(LST)

3 Semantic Classification Scheme

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

By Jackendoff (1983 , 1990)

Three independent subsystem

Fields

Conceptual constituents

Boundedness and aggregation property

.

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

LCS Fields

Loc(ational), Temp(oral), Poss(essional),

Ident(ificational), Perc(eptual)

.

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

Conceptual constituents

GO, STAY, BE, GO-EXT, and ORIENT

Type Antological Type

Thing, State,Event, Place, Path, and Property

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

Go Event .

"The ball went locationally

toward Beth."

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

.

John jogged to school

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

Run Walk Jog . .

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Lexical Conceptual Structure(LCS)

LCS

The LCS approach views semantic representation as a subset of conceptualStructure

This representation abstractsaway from syntax just

far enough to enable language-independent encoding.

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Lexical Semantic Template(LST)

Predicate Structure

Nonpredicate constant

. < > .

. .

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Lexical Semantic Template(LST)

:

The soldiers marched.

The soldiers marched to the barracks.

The soldiers marched clear of the falling rocks.

The soldiers marched the soles of their boots flat.

The general marched the soldiers to the barracks.

<march> .

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Lexical Semantic Template(LST)

Constant . .

They funneled the mixture into the jar.

They ladled the mixture into the jar.

They spooned the mixture into the jar.

.<FUNNEL> <LADLE> <SPOON>.

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References

  • Journal of Language and Linguistics

  • Large-Scale Dictionary Construction for ForeignLanguage Tutoring and Interlingual MachineTranslation


[1] Chris Quirk, Training a Sentence-Level Machine Translation Confidence Measure, May 2004.

[2] Einat Minkov,Kristina Toutanova, Hisami Suzuki Generating ,Complex Morphology for Machine Translation, June 2007 .

[3] Kristina Toutanova , Hisami Suzuki, Generating Case Markers in Machine Translation, April 2007.

[4] Robert C. Moore,ChrisQuirk, Faster Beam-Search Decoding for Phrasal Statistical Machine Translation. September 2007 .



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