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End of World War II & Beginning of Cold War. 1945-1950. Legacies of WWII: Death and Destruction. Most European cities were destroyed by bombing from both sides About 50 million people were killed around the world Homelessness was a huge problem in Europe as well as Displaced Persons

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End of World War II & Beginning of Cold War

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End of World War II & Beginning of Cold War

1945-1950


Legacies of WWII: Death and Destruction

  • Most European cities were destroyed by bombing from both sides

  • About 50 million people were killed around the world

  • Homelessness was a huge problem in Europe as well as Displaced Persons

    • People without a home (ex. Jews sent to concentration camps)


Ruins of Berlin


German women cleaning up Berlin


Legacy of World War II: War Crimes

  • Horrific actions of Nazis had to be addressed

  • Genocide is defined

  • Nuremberg Trials

    • Main Nazi leaders put on trial for “crimes against humanity”

    • Most found guilty and sentenced to death for their role in Hitler’s Final Solution

    • Set precedent for future; atrocities cannot be committed in war and go unpunished


Peace Agreements and Division

Tehran Conference (1943)

Yalta Conference (1945)

Discussion on post-war Europe

Divide Germany into 4 zones

Reparations and territorial loss for Germany

Allow Eastern Europe to determine their own governments

  • Meeting on war strategy

  • Soviets would attack from East

  • US & Britain promise to invade France (D-Day) and attack from West


The Big Three @ Yalta


Postwar Europe & Origins of Cold War:Division of Germany

  • After the war, Germany was divided by the Allies

    • West Germany: controlled by U.S., G.B. and France

    • East Germany: controlled by Soviet Union

  • City of Berlin was divided too

    • West Berlin: controlled by U.S., G.B. and France

    • East Berlin: controlled by Soviet Union


Division of Germany


Postwar Europe & Origins of Cold War:Rising Antagonisms

  • US cuts off economic aid to USSR

  • Stalin forces communist dictatorships on Eastern Europe

  • Winston Churchill gives “Iron Curtain” speech

  • Communist revolutionaries wage civil wars in Greece and China


Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War:Truman Doctrine

  • Policy of “containment”

    • United States would stop the spread of communism into non-communist areas through economic or military means


Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War: The Marshall Plan

  • US feared the destruction of war would lead to communist takeovers throughout Europe

  • Marshall Plan

    • Economic aid open to all European nations to rebuild

    • Money accepted by Western European nations only

    • $13 billion ($200 billion today) spent in Europe


Propaganda supporting Marshall Plan


Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War: The Berlin Blockade

  • Berlin located deep in East Germany

  • Stalin orders closure of roads into West Berlin to force western powers out

  • US airlifts supplies for over a year to beat the blockade; USSR lifts blockade in 1948


Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War: NATO and the Warsaw Pact

  • Defensive alliances created by US and Soviet Union

  • NATO (1949): US and Western Europe

  • Warsaw Pact (1955): Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

  • Impact: assured that Europe would be divided into two armed blocs


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