Ch 15/16 Water and its Properties. Test Review. Aqueous solution – water w/ dissolved particles (aq) Solvent – water (dissolver) Solute – salt (dissolvee) (NEW WORD?).
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Solvation: a solute dissolves or dissociates into ions(happens with most soluble ionic compounds and acids)Electrolyte: will conduct electricity when dissolved in a liquid.3 ways to speed up solvationHeatingStirring (agitation)Increasing surface area of the solute (powder)
Solubility – g of solute per 100g of solvent at a certain temperatureBelow: 2 different liquids, same amount of solute (dye). Note black bars.
saturated solution- will dissolve no more solute (at that temperature). Excess usually makes a pile of crystals on the bottom.unsaturated solution – will dissolve more solute (at that temperature)(left 3 beakers on next slide)
As you add more solute, from left to right
Dilute More Concentrated Saturated Saturated
Since 3 on right are saturated, keep adding solute, but they don’t get darker. No more dissolves into them.
3 min Long one if you have extra time: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1y3bKIOkcmk
Called Henry’s Law.
Amount of gas dissolved in a liquid.
Solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly related to pressure.
Also, as temperature increases, more gas will dissolve into the liquid.
Temp Increase means
Miscible – liquids dissolve in each other. (liquids that can mix together)Immiscible – Guess?Is this lava lamp miscible or immiscible?
Molarity: M = mol ÷ L (of solution) molality: m = moles of Solute Pg 538 kg of solventn = molesConcentrations (Note case of M / m) Molarity: M = Volume based of SOLUTION! (after mix) molality: m = Mass based of SOLVENT! (before mix)Solute + Solvent = Solution
A change in a property of a solvent that depends on the concentration of dissolved solute(s) particles is called a colligative property. Colligative properties are vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point loweringNumber of solute particles in a solution determines colligative properties.