Caspian Sea water level fluctuation: comparison between ground
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Caspian Sea water level fluctuation: comparison between ground Measurement and altimetry M Bolgov R Mammedov J-F Crétaux M. Bergé-Nguyen A. Kouraev Destruction of a coastal zone in northern coast of Azerbaijan as a result of rise of a sea level. Caspian Sea level fluctuation problem

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Caspian Sea water level fluctuation: comparison between ground

Measurement and altimetry

M Bolgov

R Mammedov

J-F Crétaux

M. Bergé-Nguyen

A. Kouraev


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Destruction of a coastal zone in northern coast of Azerbaijan as a result of rise of a sea level.


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Caspian Sea level fluctuation problem Azerbaijan as a result of rise of a sea level.

Peculiarities of the variability of the Caspian Sea level

The variability of the Caspian Sea level can be classified on cycles:

  • Geological period,

  • Historical period,

  • Yearly change,

  • Seasonal change.


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Variability of the Caspian Sea level for historical period: Azerbaijan as a result of rise of a sea level.1-Historical period, 2-Average tendency its, 3-Frequency of repetition, 4-Average tendency, 5-Level maximum, 6-Level minimum.


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Annual levels of the Caspian Sea measured in the Baku post.

1-measured level, 2- tendencies of changing. In the framework seasonal changing level is shown.


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Reasons for changes in sea level post.

Geological factors

Anthropogenic factors

Hydroclimatic factors



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Water mass balance estimation post.

The balance of water in the Caspian Sea is determined by the following contributory factors:

1) surface river flow into the sea;

2) precipitation over the surface of the sea;

3) underground flow into the sea;

4) evaporation from the surface of the sea;

5) outflow into the gulf of Kara-Bogaz-Gol.

The first three factors constitute additions to and the last two, subtractions from, the water stock of the Caspian

DV/dt = (Runoffrivers - RunoffKBG) + (Gi-Go) +(P-E)





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Altimetry on the Caspian sea and Kara Bogaz Gol Gulf post.

  • This concerns three main components:

    • Calculation of decadal Caspian Sea and KBG level variation and comparison with in-situ measurements

    • Estimation of water mass balance of each water bodies, based on coupled altimetry-climatological data

    • Study of ice regime in the north of Caspian sea from combination of active (altimetry) and passive (radiometry) microwave data


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Study of CSL from altimetry post.

+ Digital Bathymetry Map



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Global agreement with remaining local discrepancies (70 mm post.

in 1995)

Errors in altimetry ~15 mm/yr

Possible uncertainty in the global lake level deduced from

terrestrial gauges to investigate



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4 December 1972 post.

29 September 1987

Change of the area of gulf Gara-Bogaz-Gol

Mamedov (1996) presents the following relationship (attributed to Sheremetievskoi):

where, QKBG = annual inflow to the KBG (km3), H = average annual sea level at Baku (cm), QC = annual inflow to the Caspian Sea (km3).


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+ post.


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+ post.

DV/dt = Runoff (Caspi->KBG) – (E-P)*Surface(t)


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Geographycal distribution of annual post.

CSL variation deduced from 10 years

(1993-2002) Of Topex / Poseidon data

and average seasonal variation

Annual Amplitude (m)


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