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Using Learning Strategies to Improve How Students Learn and Perform Don Deshler University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning August 8, 2006 Portland, Oregon. Lion Orange Chevrolet Frog Cherry Ford Horse Apple Fish Lemon Dodge Toyota Banana Dog Chrysler.

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Using Learning Strategies to Improve How Students Learn and Perform

Don Deshler

University of Kansas

Center for Research on Learning

August 8, 2006

Portland, Oregon


Lion Perform

Orange

Chevrolet

Frog

Cherry

Ford

Horse

Apple

Fish

Lemon

Dodge

Toyota

Banana

Dog

Chrysler


What do you do
What do Perform you do?

  • Read the passage and answer the question

  • List everything you did to read and understand the passage

  • Share and compare with a neighbor


Reading sub test

Loitering with a vacant eye Perform

Along the Grecian gallery,

And brooding on my heavy ill,

I met a statue standing still.

Still in marble stone stood he,

And steadfastly, he looked at me.

“Well met,” I thought the look would say.

“We both were fashioned far away;

We neither knew, when we were young,

These Londoners we live among.”

A.E. Housman, 1896

A. Why does the speaker feel the way he does at the beginning of the poem?

He is far from home and feels out of place.

He is in very poor health.

He feels oppressed by the crowds of people in London.

He has nothing to do?

He is saddened by the fact that the statue is unhappier than he is.

Reading Sub Test


Adolescent Reading Model Perform

Language Comprehension

Word Recognition

Executive Processes

• Phonological Awareness

• Decoding

• Sight Word Reading

• Fluency

• Background Knowledge

• Syntax

• Vocabulary

• Text Structures

• Cognitive Strategies

• Metacognitive Strategies

Integration

Reading Comprehension: Comprehension comes from

integrating prior knowledge with new information from the text. This new

knowledge facilitates deeper thinking about the text and can be applied to learn new information and solve problems.

KU-CRL Hock & Deshler, 2006


Building Blocks for Perform

Content Literacy

HIGHER ORDER

SUBJECT MATTER

STRATEGIES

SKILLS

LANGUAGE


Some guiding questions
Some guiding questions…. Perform

  • What are some of the powerful strategies you use to learn new information?

  • How did you learn these strategies?

  • What are some important learning strategies to teach?

  • How do we teach struggling learners to use learning strategies?


Content Perform

Skills

Strategies


Content Perform

Skills

Strategies

Knowledge of the world

Rules and procedures

Guidelines related

to selecting and applying skills


Content Perform

Skills

Strategies


An individual s approach to a task is called a
An Individual’s approach to a task is called a Perform

STRATEGY

It includes how a person thinks and acts when planning, executing, and evaluating performance on a task and its outcomes.


Strategy instruction
Strategy Instruction Perform

is instruction in

how to learn

and perform


So…. Perform

What are some important strategies for students to learn?


Learning Strategies Perform

Expression of Competence

Sentences

Paragraphs

Error Monitoring

Themes

Assignment Completion

Test-Taking

Acquisition

Word Identification

Summarizing

Self-Questioning

Visual Imagery

Interpreting Visuals

Multipass

Storage

First-Letter Mnemonic

Paired Associates

Listening/Notetaking

LINCS Vocabulary


Paraphrasing strategy
Paraphrasing Strategy Perform

  • Read a paragraph

  • Ask yourself what is the main idea and what are important supporting details

  • Put the main idea and supporting details into your own words


Self questioning strategy
Self-Questioning Strategy Perform

  • Attend to clues as you read

  • Say some questions

  • Keep predictions in mind

  • Identify the answer

  • Talk about the answers


Word mapping strategy
Word Mapping Strategy Perform

To expand students vocabulary by helping them predict the meanings of unknown words using key language elements (roots, prefixes, suffixes) they come across while reading.


Word families
Word Families Perform

“port” – to carry

import export

report porter

deport support

important transport


Word mapping strategy1
Word Mapping Strategy Perform

Step 1: M – Map the word parts

Step 2: A – Attack the meaning of

each part

Step 3: P – Predict the word’s meaning

Step 4: S – See if you’re right!


Map Perform the targeted

word by breaking down

into its word parts


Attack Perform the meaning

by translating each

word part


Predict Perform the meaning

of the word by

putting the word part

meanings together


See Perform if your prediction

is correct by checking

with the dictionary

or someone


The lincs vocabulary strategy
The LINCS Vocabulary Strategy Perform

Reminding

Word

Word

LINCing

Story

LINCing

Picture

Definition


Creating LINCS Study Cards Perform

1. Take an index card and divide both sides in half by drawing lines across the middle of both sides.


Creating LINCS Study Cards Perform (cont.)

2. Write the word to be learned on the top half of one side. Then circle it.

fief


Creating LINCS Study Cards Perform (cont.)

3. Write the parts of the definition you need to remember on the top of the other side.

Land given by king for fighting in army

fief


Creating LINCS Study Cards Perform (cont.)

4. Write the Reminding Word on the bottom half of the first side.

Land given by king for fighting in army

fief

chief


Creating LINCS Study Cards Perform (cont.)

5. Write the LINCing Story on the bottom half of the second side.

Land given by king for fighting in army

fief

Chief of his land

chief


Creating LINCS Study Cards Perform (cont.)

6. Draw the LINCing Picture on the bottom half of the second side.

Land given by king for fighting in army

fief

Chief of his land

chief



Vocabulary words
Vocabulary Words Perform

  • Charitable

  • Mortified

  • Tirade

  • Perpetual


The lincs table

Term Perform

1

LINCing Picture

5

2

LINCing Story

Definition

4

3

Reminding Word

The LINCS Table

List the parts

Identify a remaining word

Note a LINCing story

Create a LINCing picture

Self-test


A good reminding word always
A Good REMINDING WORD always… Perform

  • Sounds like part or all of the new word.

  • Is a real word.

  • Has a meaning that you already know.

  • Helps you remember what the new word means.


A good lincing story always
A Good LINCing Story always…. Perform

  • Includes the Reminding Word or some form of the Reminding Word

  • LINCs the Reminding Word to the meaning of the new word

  • Is short and simple


A good lincing picture always
A Good LINCing Picture always... Perform

  • Contains a part related to the Reminding Word.

  • Contains parts related to the important ideas in the definition.

  • Helps you remember the new term’s definition.


Lincs strategy
LINCS Strategy Perform

Step 1: List the parts

Step 2: Identify a Reminding Word

Step 3: Note a LINCing Story

Step 4: Create a LINCing Picture

Step 5: Self-test


The lincs table1

Term Perform

1

LINCing Picture

5

2

LINCing Story

Definition

4

3

Reminding Word

The LINCS Table

List the parts

Identify a remaining word

Note a LINCing story

Create a LINCing picture

Self-test


Example lincs tables

1 Perform

3

4

5

2

The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning

Example LINCS Tables

Term

LINCing story

Definition

LINCing picture

charitable

He gave lots

of food

for the table.

Giving, generous

Reminding word

table


Example lincs tables1

1 Perform

3

4

5

2

The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning

Example LINCS Tables

Term

LINCing story

Definition

LINCing picture

mortified

The mortician was scared to death when he saw the corpse.

Scared to death

Reminding word

mortician


Example lincs tables2

1 Perform

3

4

5

2

The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning

Example LINCS Tables

Term

LINCing story

Definition

LINCing picture

tirade

The tire screamed as it went around the corner.

Screaming or yelling

Reminding word

tire


Example lincs tables3

1 Perform

3

4

5

2

The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning

Example LINCS Tables

Term

LINCing story

Definition

LINCing picture

perpetual

The pet

constantly barks.

Constantly

Reminding word

pet


So…. Perform

How do we teach learning strategies to students?


Instructional methodology large group
Instructional Methodology Perform (Large group)

  • “I do it!” (Learn by watching)

  • “We do it!” (Learn by sharing)

  • “You do it! (Learn by practicing)


Instructional methodology small group
Instructional Methodology Perform (Small group)

  • Pretest

  • Describe

    • Commitment (student & teacher)

    • Goals

    • High expectations

  • Model

  • Practice and quality feedback

    • Controlled and advanced

  • Posttest & reflect

  • Generalize, transfer, apply


Content Literacy Perform

The listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and strategies necessary to learn in each of the academic disciplines.


Content Literacy Perform

is the door to content acquisition & higher order thinking.


A Continuum of Literacy Instruction Perform

(Content Literacy Continuum -- CLC)

Level 1: Enhance content instruction(mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels)

Level 2: Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods)

Level 3: Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences)

Level 4: Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level)

Level 5: Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)

Tutoring:Strategic Tutoring (extending instructional time through before or after school tutoring)


The clc says
The CLC says… Perform

  • There are unique (but very important) roles for each member of a secondary staff relative to literacy instruction

    • Every teacher is not a reading teacher, and literacy coaches may be necessary but aren’t sufficient!

  • Some students require more intensive, systematic, explicit instruction of content, strategies, and skills


Content literacy synergy

CONTENT CLASSES Perform

Level 2. Embedded Strategy Instruction

CONTENT CLASSES

Level 1. Enhanced Content Instruction

Level 3. Intensive Strategy Instruction

• strategy classes

• strategic tutoring

Level 4. Intensive Basic Skill Instruction

Level 5. Therapeutic Intervention

Foundational language competencies

Content Literacy “Synergy”

Improved Literacy

KU-CRL CLC- Lenz, Ehren, &Deshler, 2005


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