The three gulf wars
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The Three Gulf Wars PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Three Gulf Wars. The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 The Expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait The Regime Change. Before the Iran-Iraq War. In the years after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War Iran, under the Shah, was a US ally while Iraq was in the Soviet camp Iran kept an eye on the USSR & OPEC

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The Three Gulf Wars

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The three gulf wars

The Three Gulf Wars

The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988

The Expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait

The Regime Change


Before the iran iraq war

Before the Iran-Iraq War

  • In the years after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War Iran, under the Shah, was a US ally while Iraq was in the Soviet camp

    • Iran kept an eye on the USSR & OPEC

    • Iraq bought arms from the USSR

  • Major changes in 1979

    • Saddam Hussein & the Ayatollah Khomeini gained power in Iraq & Iran, respectively

    • The Soviet army rolled into Afghanistan


The iran iraq war 1980 1988

The Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988

  • In 1980, Iraq broke the Baghdad Pact, invading Iran, expecting an easy victory, finding more resistance than expected

  • In 1981, Israel bombed an Iraqi nuclear plant

  • In 1984, the USA, fearing victory by Iran, renewed diplomatic relations with Iraq

  • The USA armed & trained the Iraqi army

  • Finally, stalemate in 1988


Impact on saddam of us aid

Impact on Saddam of US Aid

  • Transformed Saddam into a much stronger, even more ruthless leader

  • Baathist power solidified, cult of the personality strengthened

  • The US had a hard time convincing Saddam to engage Iran in the final battles that secured a draw—and a ceasefire

  • In short, we contributed enormously to the creation of a nightmare


Us focus remained on iran

US Focus Remained on Iran

  • After the Iran-Iraq War, the US continued to focus on Iran rather than Iraq

  • Despite Saddam’s massacre of 5000 in Halabja 3/17/88

  • Despite growing power of moderates in Iran

  • Operation Stanch: stop the flow of Iran

    • Around the Gulf to the other oil countries

    • Toward Israel


Status of kuwait

Status of Kuwait

  • 1899 agreement with Britain

  • 1913 boundary with Iraq defined by Anglo-Turkish Convention

  • 1938 oil discovered

  • 1976 government assumes control over oil

  • Monarchy with several levels of “citizenship”

  • Tight economic controls

  • 1990 April Glaspie: The US has no interest in Iraq’s claim that Kuwait is part of Iraq


Iraqi invasion of kuwait

Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait

  • Great celebrations among some Arabs, but not the other oil-producing countries

  • Fear over the safety of Israel

  • Fear over the global supply of petroleum

  • Commitment to reverse a clear violation of international law

  • Unanimous Security Council support for forcing Iraq out of Kuwait


Desert shield to desert storm

Desert Shield to Desert Storm

  • In the fall of 1990 a global force gathered to quarantine Iraq and if necessary evict Iraq from Kuwait

  • Iraq essentially capitulated but with considerable casualties, retreating

  • Allied forces stopped short of Baghdad, having achieved their official objectives

  • Security Council extracts acquiescence from Iraq, imposing sanctions until conditions met


Iraqi uprisings

Iraqi Uprisings

  • Global forces encouraged Iraqi uprisings

  • Kurds rose up in the north, Shia Arabs in the south but not supported externally

  • No fly zones established

  • Sanctions imposed

  • Food for oil program initiated

  • Saddam remained deeply entrenched

  • Civilians suffered miserably


Meanwhile in afghanistan

Meanwhile in Afghanistan . . .

  • Tradition of fiercely guarded independence

  • A pro-Soviet government, facing serious resistance, “invited” the USSR to provide military assistance

  • The USSR rolled into Afghanistan late in December of 1979

  • Resistance was serious

  • Resistance was aided by the US

  • Pakistan cooperated


Emergence of the taliban

Emergence of the Taliban

  • 2 million Afghan refugees, mainly in Pakistan

  • Madrassas (Islamic schools) funded by the Saudis in refugee camps

  • The Taliban (students) became a major military force, eventually controlling most of the country

  • Al Qaeda emerged as a military force against the USSR, worked with the Taliban

  • Repressive regime with a puritanical interpretation of Islam, oppression of women


Emergence of al qaeda

Emergence of Al Qaeda

  • Well funded, well armed, led by a charismatic leader, Al Qaeda became a major force for change for disaffected Muslims, particularly Saudis

  • Goals

    • End to sanctions against Iraq

    • USA out of Saudi Arabia

    • End of US support for the Saudi royal family


Al qaeda operations

Al Qaeda Operations

  • Willing to use violent means to punish the US and other enemies

    • 1993 truck explosion in the basement of the World Trade Center

    • 1998 attacks on US embassies in East Africa

    • Many attacks against India

    • The 9/11 attack


Requirements for a just war

Requirements for a Just War

  • Just cause

  • Right intention

  • Proper authority & public declaration

  • Last resort

  • Probability of success

  • Proportionality

  • Just peace


War against the taliban

War against the Taliban

  • Given support of Al Qaeda, a just cause

  • If the intention was to remove Al Qaeda & establish just rule, the intention was just

  • Unprovoked attack provided the moral authority

  • Last resort?

  • Virtually certain success at removing the Taliban

  • Proportional to the attack on the US

  • Follow through with a just peace? Not yet


The third gulf war

The Third Gulf War

  • New principle in International Law

    • Pre-emptive War: The Bush Doctrine

  • Bush, Blair justification for attacking Iraq

    • Implicated in The Attack on America

    • Imminent threat to the region & world

    • Need to free the people of Iraq

  • Opposition to the rush to war

    • Unwillingness to wait to gain UN support

    • Opening Pandora’s Box


Is the 3 rd gulf war just

Is the 3rd Gulf War Just?

  • Just Cause

    • Not part of the attack on America, not an imminent threat, certainly a vile regime

  • Right Intention

    • Why concentrate on Saddam when bin Laden is still loose? What if any part does oil play?

  • Proper Authority

    • Undercut international law by impatience with UN


Justice of the 3 rd gulf war cont

Justice of the 3rd Gulf War (cont)

  • Last Resort

    • What was the big hurry?

  • Probability of Success

    • Removing Saddam was the easy part

    • Establishing rule of law is more difficult

  • Proportionality

    • Compared to other tyrants?

  • Just Peace


Just peace for the middle east

Just Peace for the Middle East

  • Given our willingness to go to war to change the Iraqi regime, we have an opportunity to change the facts on the ground

  • If we could establish a genuinely democratic government we could change the region

  • How many countries should there be in Iraq?

  • How can security & justice be provided?

  • Are we in more or less jeopardy?

  • How will our actions now affect our jeopardy?


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