the ontology of the radiographic image
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The Ontology of the Radiographic Image: From RadLex to RadiO What do these two things have in common? What do these two things have in common? Both of these two things are images… What is RadLex?

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what do these two things have in common3
What do these two things have in common?

Both of these two things are images…

what is radlex

What is RadLex?

  • RadLex is a controlled vocabulary for reporting radiographic image observations – RadLex is notan ontology (includes term categories such as uncertainty and teaching attributes).
  • It’s purpose: „to provide a uniform structure for capturing, indexing, and retrieving a variety of radiology information sources, such as teaching files, research data, and radiology reports. RadLex will unify and supplement radiology terms in other lexicons, such as the ACR Index, SNOMED, the Unified Medical Language System, the Fleischner Society Glossaries, and DICOM.“
  • In keeping with this statement of purpose, we aim to expand this web and further supplement RadLex:
    • Foundational Model of Anatomy
    • Ontology of Biomedical Reality
what is radio

What is RadiO?

  • Ontologically sound framework for electronic radiology reporting
  • Interfaces RadLex, via an intermediary ontology of the image, to the FMA (achieved), and the Ontology of Biomedical Reality (planned).
  • For any application ontology dealing with imaging techniques, it is important that bodily entities and their appearances are kept in separate (but interrelated) ontological domains.
    • Not all pathologies are susceptible to imaging, thus the assertions in radiology reports refer primarily to the images themselves and not the organs that these images are images of (think of cancer on the cellular level)
  • Aim: to build a knowledge base of imaging ‘findings’ and their use to form concrete diagnoses.
what is radio6

What is RadiO?

  • The application ontology is implemented in Protégé and currently consists of three layers:
    • 1. an electronic reporting layer,
    • 2. an upper-level imaging domain ontology, and
    • 3. the FMA, for anatomical references (w/ OBR, for pathological references).
aligning radlex upper level term categories to the domain of the body via the imaging domain

Aligning RadLex Upper-Level Term Categories to The Domain of the Body, via the Imaging Domain

Upper-Level RadLex Term Categories

Medical Image Domain Ontology

Biomedical Domain

Image Entity

Foundational Model of Anatomy

Anatomic Location

is_a

Anatomical Image Entity

Findings

is_a

is_a

Visual Features

Image Feature

Ontology of Biomedical Reality

is_a

Diagnoses and Etiologies

is_a

Pathological Image Entity

is_a

Morphologic and Physiologic Processes

term_for

image_of

anatomic location
Anatomic Location
  • RadLex Documentation:
    • “This category specifies the body part or other anatomic region… [and] are arranged hierarchically according to sub-part relationships.”
aligning radlex upper level term categories to the domain of the body via the imaging domain9

Aligning RadLex Upper-Level Term Categories to The Domain of the Body, via the Imaging Domain

Upper-Level RadLex Term Categories

Medical Image Domain Ontology

Biomedical Domain

Image Entity

Foundational Model of Anatomy

Anatomic Location

is_a

Anatomical Image Entity

Findings

is_a

is_a

Visual Features

Image Feature

Ontology of Biomedical Reality

is_a

Diagnoses and Etiologies

is_a

Pathological Image Entity

is_a

Morphologic and Physiologic Processes

term_for

image_of

anatomic location11
Anatomic Location
  • The posterior wall of the trachea (T) and the anterior wall of the esophagus (E) almost contact and, because they contain air and the space between them does not, form the posterior tracheal stripe (arrow) in the lateral view.
  • There are four essential elements here:
  • the posterior wall of the tracheal,
  • the anterior wall of the esophagus,
  • the space between them,
  • and the lateral view (since it is only from this view that the various anatomical entities are superimposed (or in this case, not superimposed, since the esophagus is behind the trachea from the front view) in such a way to produce it.)
  • NO FMA CORRELATE!!
  • Not a genuine universal (like the thing of which my left arm, this table and my favourite restaurant are parts)
aligning radlex upper level term categories to the domain of the body via the imaging domain12

Aligning RadLex Upper-Level Term Categories to The Domain of the Body, via the Imaging Domain

Upper-Level RadLex Term Categories

Medical Image Domain Ontology

Biomedical Domain

Image Entity

Foundational Model of Anatomy

Anatomic Location

is_a

Anatomical Image Entity

Findings

is_a

is_a

Visual Features

Image Feature

Ontology of Biomedical Reality

is_a

Diagnoses and Etiologies

is_a

Pathological Image Entity

is_a

Morphologic and Physiologic Processes

term_for

image_of

visual features
Visual Features
  • RadLex Documentation: “There terms describe features on the image that can be described without reference to specific physical, anatomic, or pathological processes or structures.
    • These refer only to the image!
slide14

Visual Features

  • Image feature includes image entity attributes such as:
  • shape,
  • size,
  • density,
  • as well as patterns that have no direct correlate on the side of the patient, such as image artifacts.

CT of the liver, demonstrating intense focal enhancement

CT of the head, showing a star-like artifact

aligning radlex upper level term categories to the domain of the body via the imaging domain15

Aligning RadLex Upper-Level Term Categories to The Domain of the Body, via the Imaging Domain

Upper-Level RadLex Term Categories

Medical Image Domain Ontology

Biomedical Domain

Image Entity

Foundational Model of Anatomy

Anatomic Location

is_a

Anatomical Image Entity

Findings

is_a

is_a

Visual Features

Image Feature

Ontology of Biomedical Reality

is_a

Diagnoses and Etiologies

is_a

Pathological Image Entity

is_a

Morphologic and Physiologic Processes

term_for

image_of

morphologic and physiologic processes diagnoses and etiologies
Morphologic and Physiologic Processes/Diagnoses and Etiologies

RadLex Documentation:

  • Morphologic and Physiologic Processes: “These terms describe gross morphologic and physiologic processes, but which do not relate directly to specific physical structures or proven diagnoses.”
  • Diagnoses and Etiologies:
    • Inferred causes
    • Proven causes

i.e., specific structures

slide17

The Natural Question:

What‘s the difference between terms of the category morphologic and physiologic processes and diagnoses and etiologies?

The Difficult Answer:

No hard and fast rule… but consider the following…

slide19

Morphologic and Physiologic Processes/Diagnoses and Etiologies

Ontology of Biomedical Reality

slide20

RadLex to Ontology of Biomedical Reality

Upper-Level RadLex Term Categories

Medical Image Domain Ontology

Findings

bronchioaveolar carcinoma

Diagnoses and Etiologies

Pathological Image Entity

Morphologic and Physiologic Processes

tumour

term_for

image_of

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